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Agenda. Check In Psychological Testing vs. Assessment Brief History of Assessment Contemporary Approaches to Assessment Grouping up. Check-In. Example: The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI).

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  1. Agenda • Check In • Psychological Testing vs. Assessment • Brief History of Assessment • Contemporary Approaches to Assessment • Grouping up

  2. Check-In

  3. Example: The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) • Most widely-used personality assessment for normal subjects (More than 2 million administrations per year) • Based on the work of CG Jung • Variety of “forms” • M, G, Q • 93-222 items


  5. Personality Types –The Why? • Self awareness • Career development • Team building • Academic counseling • Relationship counseling • Dealing with conflict

  6. Uses of MBTI • Help clients understand themselves and their behavior/preferences • Appreciate others and their contributions • Make constructive use of differences

  7. What Does the MBTI Do? • Identifies preferences, not skills • Open possibilities, not limit options • All preferences are valuable (does not identify good/bad) • All preferences can be used by each person

  8. Self Awareness • Communications • Reaction to change • Conflicts • Leadership

  9. Organizational Dynamics • Teambuilding • Coaching • Sales

  10. Career Counseling . . . . • Contribution to the organization • Leadership style • Preferred learning style • Problem solving approach • Preferred work environment

  11. Identifies Areas for Improvement • Potential pitfalls • Suggestions for development

  12. Assumptions of Personality Typeology • Inborn tendencies • Comfort zones • Recognizable patterns • Change and adapt • Predictable responses • To Change • Conflict • Stress

  13. IMPORTANT!!!!! • Everyone is unique • Everyone uses every preference sometime • We can all improve communications • Relationships will improve with practice

  14. Extravert Sensing Thinking Judging Intravert Intuitive Feeling Perceiving Myers-Briggs Types Vs.

  15. Common Wrong Awareness's • Extravert IS NOT “talkative or loud” • Introvert IS NOT “shy or inhibited” • Feeling IS NOT “emotional” • Judging IS NOT “judgmental” • Perceiving IS NOT “perceptive”

  16. How you get and use your energy How do you restore your energy? Extravert - Introvert

  17. E – People, activity, talking (external world) Readily takes initiative “Act first, think later” Enjoys a wide variety and change in people and relationships Very approachable Develop ideas through discussion I – Thoughts, feelings, writing (internal world) Think/reflect first, then act Needs “private” time to reflect One-on-one relationship or conversations Great listeners Enjoys focusing on a project Extravert - Introvert

  18. Sensing (S) – Intuitive (N) How do you take in information?

  19. S – Facts – real & tangible - now Carefully thought out conclusions Lives in the present “Do something” rather than “think about it” Fantasy is a dirty word Common sense solutions N – Possibilities – Inspiration - future Use personal feelings to make decisions Comfortable with fuzzy data Inventing new possibilities is automatic Sometimes considered absent-minded Sensing (S) – Intuitive (N)

  20. Thinking (T) - Feeling (F) How do you make decisions?

  21. T – Decision through logic and truth More important to be right than liked Viewed as unemotional Focus on tasks Provides objective and critical analysis F - Decision through emotion Follow hunch to make quick conclusions Sensitive to feelings of others Toxic reaction to disharmony, prefer to accommodate Takes things too personally Thinking (T) - Feeling (F)

  22. Judging (J) - Perceiving (P) How do you organize your life?

  23. J – planned, orderly, reach closure quickly Get things done Punctual Likes to use a list, make plans Structure and order Works best and avoids stress when keeps ahead of deadlines and not given too much information at one time P – flexible, spontaneous, stay open Lives for the moment Works well under pressure and deadlines Creative Multitasks Avoids commitments, it interferes with flexibility Judging (J) - Perceiving (P)

  24. References • Essentials of Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Assessment by Naomi L. Quenk • Introduction to Type and Coaching –A Dynamic Guide for Individual Development by Krebs-Hirsch & Kise

  25. Todd’s Favorite

  26. T’nT

  27. A (very) Brief History of Intelligence The concept of ‘intelligence’ is relatively new, unknown a a century ago, though it comes from older Latin roots Intellegere = to see into perceive, understand

  28. 19th Century • Jean Esquirol • Distinguished between mental incapacity & mental illness (“idiots” vs “deranged”) • Sir Francis Galton –The father of psychometrically based testing movement • Karl Pearson • Germans: Wundt, Ebbinghaus, Wernick, others

  29. Importance of Binet-Simon Scales • The 1905 Binet-Simon stimulated the development of clinical psychology in the US and elsewhere. • Its success was a triumph of pragmatism; demonstrated feasibility of mental measurement and aided in development of other tests. • Led to public acceptance of testing and confirmed important consequences for education, industry, military and general society.

  30. Controversy! • Some objected to the innateness bias, and suggested the term be replaced with • “General Scholastic Ability” • “General Educational Ability” However: this did not catch on as most theorists today advance a construct of intelligence that is independent of education.

  31. Testing Practice and Influence Testing has become a common practice in the following: • Schools, clinics • Industry and the military Testing influences: • Public policy • Business • Scientific psychology

  32. Defining Intelligence • Binet(1916) defined it as the capacity to judge well, to reason well, and to comprehend well • Terman(1916) defined it as the capacity to form concepts and grasp their significance • Pintner(1921) defined it as the ability of an individual to adapt well to new situations in life

  33. Defining Intelligence (cont.) • Thorndike (1921) defined it as the power of goodresponses from the point of view of truth or fact • Thurstone (1921) defined it as the capacity to inhibit instinctive response, imagine a different response, and realize the response modification into behavior

  34. Defining Intelligence (cont.) • Spearman (1923) defined it as a general ability involving mainly the ability to see relations and correlates • Wechlser (1939) defined it as the global capacity of an individual to act purposefully, think rationally, and deal effectively with the environment

  35. Defining Intelligence (cont.) • Piaget (1972) defined it as referring to the superior forms of organization or equilibrium of cognitive structuring used for adaptation to the to the physical and social environment • Sternberg (1985) defined it as the mental capacity to automatize information processing and to emit contextually appropriate behavior in response to novelty

  36. Defining Intelligence (cont.) • Gardner (1986) defined it as the ability to solve problems or fashion products valued within some setting. • Carroll (1997) IQ represents the degreee to which, and the rate at which, people are able to learn, and retain in long-term memory, the knowledge and skills that can be learned from the environment

  37. So, is it???? • Adaptation to environment • Basic mental processes • Higher order thinking (reasoning, problem-solving, and decision making) • Metacognition • Executive processes

  38. Or, is it??? • Knowledge • Interaction between knowledge and mental processes • Context (value placed on intelligence by a given culture)

  39. Maybe it is. . . . .? • Abstract thinking or reasoning • Problem-solving ability • Capacity to acquire knowledge • Memory • Adaptation to environment • Mental speed

  40. Or. . . .? • Linguistic and mathematical competence • General knowledge • Creativity • Sensory acuity • Goal directedness • Achievement motivation

  41. Contemporary Approaches to Assessment? Assessment includes a broad array of evaluative procedures that yield information about a person. Tests (which are a component of assessment) yield scores based on the gathering of collective data.

  42. Generally Speaking. . . The greater the number of procedures used in assessing an individual, the greater the likelihood that they will yield a clearer snapshot of the client.

  43. An Overgeneralization . . . .

  44. Types of Assessment • Screening • Focused • Diagnostic • Counseling and Rehabilitation • Career • Progress Monitoring • Problem-solving

  45. Four Pillars of Assessment • Norm-referenced measures • Interviews • Behavioral observations • Informal assessment procedures

  46. Factors of a Multi-method Assessment The following factors must be considered: • Referral information • Demographic and background information • Assessment findings • Interventions

  47. Foundation for the Assessment Process • Background • Selection of assessment measures • Administration of assessment measures • Interpretation of assessment measures

  48. Steps in the Comprehensive Assessment Process • Review referral information –Frame the Question • Decide whether to assess • Obtain relevant background information • Consider the influence of relevant others • Observe the client in several settings • Select and administer an assessment test battery

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