What is biodiversity? • All living things are called organisms. • Biodiversity is the short form of Biological Diversity. • Biodiversity refers to the wide variety of organisms on Earth.
Classification of organisms • Classification of the organisms is the sorting of organisms (animals or plants) into groups which have similar characteristics. • There are 5 major groups: • Animals • Plants • Fungi (mould) • Bacteria • Simple organisms (unicellular organisms)
vertebrates • Animals with backbone or spinal column. • It’s long, strong and flexible. • It supports the body, anchors the limbs and protects the spinal cord. • Usually large in size.
invertebrates • Animals without backbones. • Usually small in size. • These animals have simple body systems. • Insects make up about 90% of all invertebrates.
fish • Cold-blooded (poikilotherm) • Live in water • Bodies are covered with slimy scales • Carry out external fertilisation (outside female body) • Lay eggs • Breathe through gills • Examples: pomfret, sea horse, eel, stingray **** Sharks give birth to their young
amphibians • Cold-blooded (poikilotherm) • Live in water and on land • Bodies are covered with moist skin • Carry out external fertilisation (outside female body) • Lay eggs • Breathe through lungs (adults) gills (young) • Examples: frogs, toads, salamander
reptiles • Cold-blooded (poikilotherm) • Live on land • Bodies are covered with hard dry scales • Carry out internal fertilisation (inside female body) • Lay eggs • Breathe through lungs • Examples: lizards, snakes, crocodiles, turtles, tortoise **** Anaconda give birth to their young
birds • Warm-blooded (homeotherm) • Live on land • Bodies are covered with feathers and wings • Carry out internal fertilisation (inside female body) • Lay eggs • Breathe through lungs • Examples: duck, pigeon, penguin, eagle, ostriches
mammals • Warm-blooded (homeotherm) • Live on land • Bodies are covered with hair or fur • Carry out internal fertilisation (inside female body) • Give birth to their young and breast feeding • Breathe through lungs • Examples: humans, cows, bats, cats, porcupine, etc
mammals • Echidnas lay eggs • Whales live in water and give birth • Platypus lays eggs • Bats have wings • Armadillos have scales • Anteaters lay eggs
invertebrates • Invertebrates account for more than 90% of the species in the animal kingdom. • Many of the invertebrates are small I size and they have simple body structures. • They cannot grow too big because they do not have a backbone to support their weight.
invertebrates • Insects (butterflies, bees, wasps, etc) • Scorpion • Molluscs • Worms • Crabs • Prawns • Spiders
3 pairs of legs • Butterflies • Grasshoppers • Beetles • Crickets • Ants • Cockroaches
4 pairs of legs • Spiders • Scorpions • Mites • ticks
More than 4 pairs of legs • Millipedes • Centipedes • Shrimps • crabs • Lobsters
Worm-like • Leeches • Earthworms • Flatworms • Tapeworms • Roundworms
Non-worm-like • Jellyfish • Starfish • Snails • Sea anemones • Cuttlefish • Squids
monocotyledons • Seeds with one cotyledon. • Fibrous roots • Leaves with parallel veins • Most are herbaceous plants, non-woody stems. • Examples: maize, paddy, grass, orchid, sugar cane, banana, etc.
dicotyledons • Seeds with two cotyledon. • Tap roots • Leaves with network veins • Most are woody stems. • Examples: mango tree, durian tree, sunflower, rubber tree, etc.
Ways of reproduction • Moss : spores • Fern : spores • Yeast : budding • Conifers : seeds in the cones
Mosses • It has simple stems and tiny leaves • No true roots • Reproduce through spores produced in capsules at the end of the stalks
Examples of mosses • Moss • Liverwort
Ferns • It has stems, leaves and roots • It reproduces through spores produced in capsules on the underside of the leaves (fronds) • live on land and in moist shady places
examples • Bird’s nest fern • Staghorn’s fern
conifers • Have roots, stems and needle-like leaves • Do not produce flowers but cones • Reproduce through seeds in the cones
examples • Pinetree • Spruce
algae • Unicellular or multicellular organisms • Do not have true stems, leaves or roots • Live in water or moist places • Examples: • Chlorella • Seaweed • Phytoplankton • Spirogyra • Yeast – reproduce through budding
The importance of biodiversity to the environment • Contributes wealth of resources such as • Food • Fuels • Timber • Shelter • Spices • Clothing • Herbs • Medicines • Maintain carbon, water and oxygen cycles
Human activities that destroy the nature • Illegal logging • Hunting of wild animals • Widespread clearing of forests for housing and urbanisation • Overfishing • Mining • Agricultural activities • Building dams
Source of medicines and herbs • Many plants are rich sources of traditional and modern medicines. • These are used to treat and prevent diseases.
Source of genetic diversity • Biodiversity enhances the wealth of gene pools t further increase diversity in the future generations.