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BIODIVERSITY

BIODIVERSITY

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BIODIVERSITY

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  1. BIODIVERSITY

  2. What is biodiversity? • All living things are called organisms. • Biodiversity is the short form of Biological Diversity. • Biodiversity refers to the wide variety of organisms on Earth.

  3. biodiversity

  4. Classification of organisms • Classification of the organisms is the sorting of organisms (animals or plants) into groups which have similar characteristics. • There are 5 major groups: • Animals • Plants • Fungi (mould) • Bacteria • Simple organisms (unicellular organisms)

  5. Classification of animals

  6. vertebrates • Animals with backbone or spinal column. • It’s long, strong and flexible. • It supports the body, anchors the limbs and protects the spinal cord. • Usually large in size.

  7. invertebrates • Animals without backbones. • Usually small in size. • These animals have simple body systems. • Insects make up about 90% of all invertebrates.

  8. fish • Cold-blooded (poikilotherm) • Live in water • Bodies are covered with slimy scales • Carry out external fertilisation (outside female body) • Lay eggs • Breathe through gills • Examples: pomfret, sea horse, eel, stingray **** Sharks give birth to their young

  9. amphibians • Cold-blooded (poikilotherm) • Live in water and on land • Bodies are covered with moist skin • Carry out external fertilisation (outside female body) • Lay eggs • Breathe through lungs (adults) gills (young) • Examples: frogs, toads, salamander

  10. reptiles • Cold-blooded (poikilotherm) • Live on land • Bodies are covered with hard dry scales • Carry out internal fertilisation (inside female body) • Lay eggs • Breathe through lungs • Examples: lizards, snakes, crocodiles, turtles, tortoise **** Anaconda give birth to their young

  11. birds • Warm-blooded (homeotherm) • Live on land • Bodies are covered with feathers and wings • Carry out internal fertilisation (inside female body) • Lay eggs • Breathe through lungs • Examples: duck, pigeon, penguin, eagle, ostriches

  12. mammals • Warm-blooded (homeotherm) • Live on land • Bodies are covered with hair or fur • Carry out internal fertilisation (inside female body) • Give birth to their young and breast feeding • Breathe through lungs • Examples: humans, cows, bats, cats, porcupine, etc

  13. mammals • Echidnas lay eggs • Whales live in water and give birth • Platypus lays eggs • Bats have wings • Armadillos have scales • Anteaters lay eggs

  14. invertebrates • Invertebrates account for more than 90% of the species in the animal kingdom. • Many of the invertebrates are small I size and they have simple body structures. • They cannot grow too big because they do not have a backbone to support their weight.

  15. invertebrates • Insects (butterflies, bees, wasps, etc) • Scorpion • Molluscs • Worms • Crabs • Prawns • Spiders

  16. invertebrates

  17. 3 pairs of legs • Butterflies • Grasshoppers • Beetles • Crickets • Ants • Cockroaches

  18. 4 pairs of legs • Spiders • Scorpions • Mites • ticks

  19. More than 4 pairs of legs • Millipedes • Centipedes • Shrimps • crabs • Lobsters

  20. Worm-like • Leeches • Earthworms • Flatworms • Tapeworms • Roundworms

  21. Non-worm-like • Jellyfish • Starfish • Snails • Sea anemones • Cuttlefish • Squids

  22. Classification of plants

  23. Flowering plants

  24. monocotyledons • Seeds with one cotyledon. • Fibrous roots • Leaves with parallel veins • Most are herbaceous plants, non-woody stems. • Examples: maize, paddy, grass, orchid, sugar cane, banana, etc.

  25. One cotyledon

  26. Fibrous roots

  27. Parallel veins

  28. dicotyledons • Seeds with two cotyledon. • Tap roots • Leaves with network veins • Most are woody stems. • Examples: mango tree, durian tree, sunflower, rubber tree, etc.

  29. Non - Flowering plants

  30. Ways of reproduction • Moss : spores • Fern : spores • Yeast : budding • Conifers : seeds in the cones

  31. Mosses • It has simple stems and tiny leaves • No true roots • Reproduce through spores produced in capsules at the end of the stalks

  32. Examples of mosses • Moss • Liverwort

  33. Ferns • It has stems, leaves and roots • It reproduces through spores produced in capsules on the underside of the leaves (fronds) • live on land and in moist shady places

  34. examples • Bird’s nest fern • Staghorn’s fern

  35. conifers • Have roots, stems and needle-like leaves • Do not produce flowers but cones • Reproduce through seeds in the cones

  36. examples • Pinetree • Spruce

  37. algae • Unicellular or multicellular organisms • Do not have true stems, leaves or roots • Live in water or moist places • Examples: • Chlorella • Seaweed • Phytoplankton • Spirogyra • Yeast – reproduce through budding

  38. phytoplankton

  39. spirogyra

  40. The importance of biodiversity to the environment • Contributes wealth of resources such as • Food • Fuels • Timber • Shelter • Spices • Clothing • Herbs • Medicines • Maintain carbon, water and oxygen cycles

  41. Human activities that destroy the nature • Illegal logging • Hunting of wild animals • Widespread clearing of forests for housing and urbanisation • Overfishing • Mining • Agricultural activities • Building dams

  42. Source of medicines and herbs • Many plants are rich sources of traditional and modern medicines. • These are used to treat and prevent diseases.

  43. Source of genetic diversity • Biodiversity enhances the wealth of gene pools t further increase diversity in the future generations.