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  1. Biodiversity Biodiversity: The sum of all the different organisms on Earth

  2. Why is Biodiversity important? Who cares, right? More biodiversity means • A greater variety of foodsneeded for survival. • More opportunities for medical discoveries. • It increases the chance that some species will adapt and survive when an environment changes.

  3. Threats to BiodiversityCuteness!

  4. Environmental Problem #1 Smog Cause: Created by automobiles, power plants, and factories. Effect:Leads to respiratory problems, this may stop plants from growing, it can harm the environment, and can lead to property damage when acid rain forms.

  5. Environmental Problem #2:Ozone Depletion (removal) • Ozone: A molecule with 3 oxygen atoms (O3) • Ozone layer: a region of the atmosphere that contains ozone that absorbs radiation from the sun. • Cause: Removal of ozone by chloroflurocarbons (CFC’s) found in aerosols and refrigerants. • Effect: CFCs damages the ozone layer, this means hotter temperatures for us!

  6. Environmental Problem #3Global Warming Cause: Greenhouse gasessuch as CO2, methane, water vapor, nitrous oxide absorb heat. Effect: The more greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, the more heat they trap, and this increases the average temperatures on Earth.

  7. Cause: Sewage that includes liquid and solid waste carried away through drains and sewers enters rivers and streams. Pesticides, washed away into rivers and streams, pollute water.Effect: Can harm aquatic organisms. Disease-causing microorganisms can reproduce in polluted waters. Environmental Problem #4 Water Pollution

  8. Water Pollution The Exxon Valdez oil tanker (ship with oil) crashed in the coast of Alaska in 1989 spilling 240,000 barrels of oil.

  9. Many factories use hazardous chemicals that make wild life and humans sick.

  10. Environmental Problem #5Habitat Destruction (#1 threat to biodiversity!!!) Cause: Cutting down or destroying forests/trees Effect: More CO2 in the atmosphere • Hotter for us!

  11. Environmental Problem #6Suburban Sprawl • Irresponsible, poorly planned developments (such as houses). • Cause: destroying green space and habitats. • Effect: Increases both traffic and air pollution. This increases CO2 contributing to global warming.


  13. Environmental Problem #7Habitat FragmentationCauses: Breaking up a habitat into smaller pieces.

  14. Effect: This decreases biodiversity because some species cannot survive in small habitats.

  15. Wildfires and other natural disasters

  16. Environmental Problem #8Introducing Invasive Species • Aggressive animals that are not native to a habitat and they cause harm to organisms that live there. • Cause: They compete with native species • Effect: Cause extinction of native species and this biodiversity. Rats on Hawaii are an invasive species I’iwi Birds are native to Hawaii. They are an endangered species. I’iwi are one of many Hawaiian Birds that face extinction due to invasive species.

  17. Environmental Problem #9Removing Keystone Species • Key members within an ecosystem. • Cause: If they’re removed from the food chain, many other organisms may suffer. • Effect:May result in extinctions and this decreases biodiversity. • Example: Sea stars prey on sea urchins, mussels, and shellfish. If sea starts are removed, the mussel population will increase so much that it will drive out most of the other species in that environment.

  18. Environmental Problem #10MoreEndangered Species • Organisms soon to die out. Once they become extinct, they will never be seen on Earth again. • Cause: The human population has exploded since the last few decades. So more and more lands are taken away from these animals or plants to create homes. • Effect: Some animals or plants don't adapt to the limited space so they die off and they become endangered species.

  19. Why can’t we all just get along?

  20. Organisms interact in many ways

  21. Competition and predation are two important ways inwhich organisms interact. • Competition occurs when two organisms fight for the same limited resource.

  22. Predation occurs when one organism captures and eats another.

  23. Commensalism Human Our eyelashes are home to tiny mites that feast on oil secretions and dead skin. Without harming us, up to 20 mites may be living in one eyelash follicle. Ø Eyelash mites find all they need to survive in the tiny follicles of eyelashes. + Ø + Organism is not affected Organism benefits • There arethreemajor types of symbiotic relationships. • Symbiosis- two or more different organisms that may, but does not necessarily, benefit each member. • 1) Commensalism: one organism benefits, the other is unharmed

  24. Braconid wasp Braconid larvae feed on their host and release themselves shortly before reaching the pupae stage of development. 0 Parasitism + _ Hornworm caterpillar The host hornworm will eventually die as its organs are consumed by wasp larvae. _ Organism benefits Organism is not affected 0 2) Parasitism: one organism benefits, the other is harmed.

  25. 3) Mutualism: both organisms benefit Example: We have bacteria in our intestines that help digest nutrients. We provide them with shelter.

  26. Habitat (Home) • Where a species lives; it includes biotic (living) and abiotic (nonliving) factors

  27. Niche • Howit lives within its habitat • Food (they like to eat this..), abiotic conditions (they like this weather), they behave like this.

  28. What factors influence the size of a population? • Density Independent Factors (Abiotic) • Natural disasters • Density Dependent Factors (Biotic) • Predation, disease, parasites, and competition

  29. Population Growth Rate is influenced by • Birth Rate • Death Rate • Immigration -move into a population • Emigration • exit a population

  30. What combination of factors would cause a population of rabbits to: • Grow? • Decline? • Stay the same?

  31. Types of Growth • Exponential Growth (J-curve) • Rapid growth that occurs when there are no limits from the environment • Logistic Growth (S-Curve) • Occurs when growth slows due to some limiting factor

  32. Carrying Capacity • Maximum # of individuals that the environment can support What can limit population? Copy down graph

  33. Limiting Factors • They prevent a population from growing. • Limiting factors include • Water • Food • Shelter (space/land)

  34. How does population size increase? • High reproductive rates • Low death rates • Immigration • Having defense mechanisms • The ability to adapt well after changes within the environment. • Access to medicine! • Improved sanitation • Lots of food, water, and shelter available

  35. But what can happen whenlots of individuals are in one area • Populations gets closer to carrying capacity • Competitionfor food, water and shelter • Predation • Parasitism • Diseases spread easily

  36. How animals balance each other out