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OOPC-12 Meeting 2007: Paris

OOPC-12 Meeting 2007: Paris. Ocean Projects in IGBP II today. Summary. IMBER Science Implementation activities IPO activities Scientific specific activities Related meetings, workshops and conferences IMBER Sustained observations requirements. Vision.

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OOPC-12 Meeting 2007: Paris

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  1. OOPC-12 Meeting 2007: Paris

  2. Ocean Projects in IGBP II today

  3. Summary • IMBER Science • Implementation activities • IPO activities • Scientific specific activities • Related meetings, workshops and conferences • IMBER Sustained observations requirements

  4. Vision “to provide a comprehensive understanding of and accurate predictive capacity for, ocean responses to accelerating global change and the consequent effects on the Earth System and human society”

  5. Goal “to investigate the sensitivity of marine biogeochemical cycles and ecosystems to global change, on time scales ranging from years to decades”

  6. Theme 1 Interactions between biogeochemical cycles and marine food webs What are the key marine biogeochemical cycles, ecosystem processes, and their interactions, that will be impacted by global change?

  7. Theme 1 - Issues and questions • Transformation of organic matter in marine food webs • What controls the stochiometry and form of “bioreactive” elements in space and time? • What controls production, transformation, and breakdown of organic matter in marine food webs? • Transfers of matter across ocean interfaces • What are the time and space scales of remineralisation of organic matter in the mesopelagic layer? • How does nutrients exchange between continental margins and the ocean interior impact biogeochemical cycles? • How exchange between the seafloor and the water column impact food web structure and function? • End-to-end food webs and material flows (IMBER/GLOBEC collaboration) • How do food web dynamics affect nutrient availability? • How do key functional groups, species, and genes affect biogeochemical cycles? • How do species biodiversity and species interactions affect food web functioning and biogeochemical cycling? • How are the interactions between biogeochemical processes and food webs recorded in palaeo-proxies?

  8. Theme 2 Sensitivity to Global Change What are the responses of key marine biogeochemical cycles, ecosystems and their interactions to global change?

  9. Theme 2 – Issues and questions… • Impacts of climate-induced changes through physical forcing and variability • What is the impact of changes in circulation, ventilation and stratification? • What are the direct effects of changes in ocean temperature and light environment? • What are the impacts of changes in frequency and intensity of extreme and episodic events? • Effects of increasing anthropogenic CO2 and changing pH on marine biogeochemical cycles, ecosystems and their interactions (IMBER/SOLAS: Joint Implementation plan) • What are the effects of CO2 driven changes in carbonate chemistry? • What are the effects of pH-driven changes in nutrient and trace metal speciation? • Which organisms and biological processes are most sensitive to pH and CO2 changes, what are the consequences, and to what extent can organisms adapt in response to these changes? …

  10. …Theme 2 – Issues and questions • Effects of changing supplies of macro- and micronutrients • How will changes in macro- and micronutrient inputs to the ocean affect the cycles of these elements? • How will changes in the abundance, distribution, and stoichiometry of nutrient elements affect food web structure and function? • How will increases in hypoxia and anoxia affect food webs and cycles of key macro- and micronutrients? • Impacts of harvesting of marine ressources on end-to-end food webs and biogeochemical cycles (IMBER/GLOBEC) • How do harvesting-induced changes in food web structure impact biogeochemical cycles? • What are the impacts of harvesting living marine resources on end-to-end food webs

  11. Theme 3 Feedbacks to the Earth System What is the role of ocean biogeochemistry and ecosystems in regulating climate?

  12. Theme 3 - Issues and questions • Oceanic storage of anthropogenic CO2 • What are the spatial and temporal scales of storage of CO2 in the ocean interior? • What is the role of the continental margins in ocean carbon storage under global change? • Ecosystem feedback on ocean physics and climate • How do marine food web structure and variability affect ocean and ice physics, and large-scale climate and its variability, via the upper ocean heat budget? • What will be the effect of global changes in oxygen minimum zones on sources, transport and out gassing of N2O?

  13. Theme 4 Responses of society What are the relationships between marine biogeochemical cycles ecosystems, and the human system?

  14. Theme 4 – To be developed The challenge Bring together natural and social sciences communities to develop the issues and questions for this theme

  15. “IMBER Science Plan and Implementation Strategy”, June 2005 Downloadable pdf version: www.IMBER.info/SPIS.html

  16. Working groups • End-to-End Food web Task Team(IMBER/GLOBEC) • Joint SOLAS/IMBER carbon research group (IMBER/SOLAS) • Joint LOICZ/IMBER Continental Margins Task Team (IMBER/LOICZ) • Capacity Building Task Team • DataManagement Committee

  17. End-To-End Task Team (GLOBEC/IMBER) Membership: • Coleen Moloney (South Africa, co-chair) • Mike St John (Germany, co-chair) • Ken Denman (Canada) • Dave Karl (USA) • Fritz Köster (Denmark) • Svein Sundby (Norway) • Rory Wilson (UK) • The group submitted a review paper to Science focused on the concept for end-to-end food web research. • The task team recommended the formation of a new IMBER/GLOBEC End-to-End working group to be jointly appointed by the IMBER and GLOBEC SSC’s. • The terms of reference for this group are being developed.

  18. Joint SOLAS-IMBER Carbon group Membership: • Arne Koertzinger (Germany, co-Chair) • Truls Johannessen (Norway, co-Chair) • Niki Gruber (Switzerland) • Nicolas Metzl (France) • Britton Stephens (USA) • Gerhard Herndl (Netherlands) • Ken Johnson (USA) • Kitack Lee (Korea) • Kevin Arrigo (USA) • Toshiro Saino (Japan) • Hermann Bange (Germany) • Dick Feely (USA) IMBER Report no. 1 (February 2006, to be reviewed and printed in 2007)

  19. Carbon Sub-groups 1. Surface ocean systemsChair: Nicolas Metzl (France) Surface pCO2 variability and vulnerabilities workshop (Unesco, Paris, 11-14 April 2007); – workshop report to come, DSR II special issue in preparation; 2. Interior ocean carbon storageChair: Nicolas Gruber (Switzerland) (i)Argo-O2 Task Team –todevelop pilot projectsand find funding at national levels; (ii) International Synthesis Task team–to lead the international synthesis effort (membership and ToR to be established) 3. Carbon cycle climate sensitivities and feedbacks Chair: Kitack Lee (South Korea) Membership and ToR to be proposed This group will meet in 2007-2008 to synthesize our understanding of climate feedbacks to the ocean so far, identify scientific issues and develop a strategy to move forward. The Ocean acidification is a very important topic that this group should address.

  20. Continental Margins Task Team(IMBER/LOICZ) • Membership: • Nancy Rabalais (USA, co-chair) • Jack Middelburg (Netherlands, co-chair) • KK Liu (Taiwan) • Kai Wirtz (Germany) • Paul Wassmann (Norway) • Jing Zhang (China) • Helmuth Thomas (Canada) • Katja Fennel (Canada) • Burke Hales (USA) • Isabelle Niang-Diop (Senegal) Continental Margins Conference September 17-21, 2007, Shanghai, China

  21. The 8 planned Session topics are: 1. Ocean-Shelf Biogeochemical Exchanges (invited speaker: Dr Arthur Chen)2. Continental Shelf Biogeochemistry and Couplings with Benthic Systems 3. Continental Shelf Carbon in a High CO2 World (invited speaker: Dr Alberto Borges)4. Continental Shelf Ecosystems from High to Low Latitudes5. Integrated Observations and Modeling: Visions and Reality6. Eutrophication and Oligotrophication in Coastal Systems7. Low Oxygen on Continental Shelves8. Sustainable Use of Continental Shelf Resources

  22. Capacity Building Working Group • Membership: • Wajih Naqvi (India, chair) • Adnan Al-Azri (Oman) • Laura David (Philippines) • Carina Lange (Chile) • Coleen Moloney (South Africa) • Temel Oguz (Turkey) • Jing Zhang (China) • ?? looking for suggestions (Russia/Germany) • Encourage new research initiatives and establish/improve infrastructure needed for IMBER-related research in less developed coastal countries • Develop human resources • Enhance capacity in activities that have few practitioners • Seek special funding

  23. Data Management Committee • Membership: • Raymond Pollard (UK, Chair) • Jay Cullen (Canada) • Wilco Hazeleger (The Netherlands) • Gwen Moncoiffé (UK, BODC) • Todd O’Brien (USA, COPEPOD) • Reiner Schlitzer (Allemagne, SeaDataSet) • Sophie Beauvais (France, Data liaison officer) • Develop guidelines for endorsed projects and a Data Management Policy for IMBER. • Develop a data portal on the IMBER website (http://www.imber.info/data.html). • DMC meeting in Victoria, Canada, June 10-11, 2007.

  24. IMBER International Project Office Located at the European Institute for Marine Studies Brest, France Elena Fily, Sylvie Roy, and Sophie Beauvais Financed for 3 years: (2005-2008) Thanks to all our sponsors…

  25. Brochure Website www.IMBER.info Newsletter e-NEWS Poster Promotion

  26. Sponsored Activities (2006-2007) • Sustained Indian Ocean Biogeochemistry and Environment Workshop Goa, India, (October 3-6, 2006) • IMBER/ PICES Session at PICES XV Annual Meeting , Interactions between Biogeochemical Cycles and Marine Food Webs in the North Pacific Ocean, Yokohama, Japan, (October 13-21, 2006) • Humboldt Current System: Climate, ocean dynamics, ecosystem processes, and fisheries conference. Lima, Peru, (November 27 – December 1, 2006) • Oxygen Minimum Zone workshop, Concepción,Chile (October 24-26, 2006) • Austral Summer Institutes VII, Concepción, Chili (January 2-26, 2007)

  27. Regional activities Major contributors • EUR-OCEANS European Network of Excellence for Ocean Ecosystems Analysis, 60 research institutions and universities from 25 countries (2005-2008) • CARBOOCEANIntegrated Project Carboocean – Evaluation of the sources and sinks of marine carbon, 47 international groups(2005-2010) • ICEDIntegrated Analyses of Circumpolar Climate Interactions and Ecosystem Dynamics in the Southern Ocean, jointly with GLOBEC and EUR-OCEANS

  28. Regional activities Endorsed projects • BIOSOPEBiogeochemistry and Optics South Pacific Experiment • (part of PROOF, 2002-2005) • National CHINESE IMBER/GLOBEC • (5 years, 2006 - 2010) • The marine carbon cycle from North to South of the Galathea route • August 2006 - April 2007 • ECOMADRIntegration Analysis of North Adriatic Marine Ecosystem • January2006 - September 2007 • Role of eukaryote pico- and nanoplankton in the biogeochemical processes of the deep sea • June 2005 - January 2008

  29. National Activities… China 5 year funding IMBER/GLOBEC programme. Hosting the Second LME IndiaImpact of anthropogenic perturbations on oceanographic and atmospheric processes in and around India in context of global change; SIBER workshop in October 2006 JapanIMBER-JAPAN established under the Science Council of Japan (2004), chaired by Hiroaki Saito. North West Pacific cruise has been funded for Summer 2008. New ZealandTwo funded research cruises in permanently oligotrophic regions to north west of New Zealand focused on N cycling in this region ChileCurrently funded COPAS programme is a contribution to IMBER

  30. …National Activities FranceCurrently funded for four years CYBER programme "CYcles Biogéochimiques, Ecosystèmes et Ressources". (2006-2009); many regional project NetherlandsProgramme under development with joint IMBER /SOLAS cruise planned GermanyPlanning for new programme for 2007 SpainDeveloping a co-sponsored proposal with The Netherlands for a “Deep-water Oceanography” project. Holding a Spanish IMBER symposium in March 2007. UKPlans for IMBER contribution in new funding round 2007. USA A new “Ocean Carbon Biogeochemistry” group has been formed in 2006; Two regional projects requested endorsement!

  31. Workshops, special sessions… • 2007 • IMBER/GODAE workshop on BGC in Open Ocean (Paris, 12-13 June, • 2007) • Joint IMBER/LOICZ Conference (Shanghaï, 17-21September 2007) • CLIOTOP Symposium (La Paz, 3-7 December) • ICED Modeling workshop (Venue? Late 2007) • 2008 • IMBER/CLIVAR/GLOBEC Climate variability Workshop (Brest, April 2008) • IRD Symposium on upwelling (Canary Islands, 2 - 6 June 2008) • ICES/PICES/IOC Symposium Climate Change, (Gijon, Spain, 19-23 May • 2008) • IMBER Open Science Conference (Rimouski, Canada, October 2008)

  32. IMBER Sustained Observation Requirements

  33. Sustained Observing needs • Physical measurements • Capture unpredictable, extreme and episodic events that have significant impacts of biogeochemistry and ecosystems • Biogeochemistry • Key nutrients (ie N) • Ecosystems • Ground truthing of remotely sensed chlorophyll a • Ground truthing of remotely sensed phytoplankton species • Carbon • SOLAS-IMBER Carbon (SIC) group for science purpose in close link with IOCCP (International Ocean Carbon Coordination Project from IOC & SCOR), associated to the Integrated Global Carbon Observation (IGCO) of IGOS…

  34. Coastal studies Water column inventories Ocean time series Biogeochemical pCO2 Eddy-covariance flux towers Surface observation pCO2 nutrients Biomass soil carbon inventories Integrated Global Carbon ObservationIGOS - IGCO Georeferenced emissions inventories Atmospheric measurements Remote sensing of Atmospheric CO2 Data assimilation link optimized model parameters Atmospheric Transport model optimized Fluxes Climate and weather fields Ocean carbon model Terrestrial carbon model rivers Lateral fluxes Ecological studies Remote sensing of Vegetation properties Growth Cycle Fires Biomass Radiation Land cover /use Ocean remote sensing Ocean colour Altimetry Winds SST SSS

  35. IGCO: A Hierarchy of Approaches and Scales The Carbon System Approach Scale The source and sinks and controlling processes will only be determined within an integrated approach where point-wise in situ surface measurements can be scaled up using global satellite datasets and models, and then constrained and verified by atmospheric CO2 concentration measurements.

  36. Key regions for observations • Continental Margins • High latitude • Polar Oceans • Mesopelagic (150 to 1500m)

  37. (micro) Sensor development • O2 sensors on Argo floats • Chemical sensors for nutrients such as NO3, NH4, etc… • Chlorophyll a sensors for long term deployment • Optical sensors for long term deployment for ground truthing remote sensing data • Biological sensors (cytometry up to DNA…)

  38. New vectors for HF bio/geo-sampling

  39. Satellite remote sensing Need sustained observations of • Ocean colour: • Chlorophyll (but not enough… • Phytoplankton speciation • Dissolved organic matter • Suspended particulate matter • Particulate size spectra • Others tbd) • Sea surface temperature & salinity

  40. www.IMBER.info

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