Chapter 2 Basic Tools for Improving Quality

# Chapter 2 Basic Tools for Improving Quality

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## Chapter 2 Basic Tools for Improving Quality

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1. Chapter 2Basic Tools for Improving Quality

2. 7 Basic Tools by Ishikawa • Histogram • Pareto chart • Scatter plot • Control chart • Cheek sheet • Cause-and-effect diagram • Defect concentration diagram

3. 2.1 Histogram • A histogram is a bar chart that shows the relative frequencies of observations in each of several classes. • Rule for determining the number of classes: • “Power of 2 rule”: for n observations, we would use a classes, where 2a-1 < n < 2a • Roundup a = lnn / ln 2 (=ROUNDUP(LN(100)/LN(2), 0) • a ~

4. Table 2.1 Example Data

5. Histogram by Minitab

6. Histogram by Excel

7. 2.2 Pareto Charts • A Pareto chart is a bar graph that shows the relative frequencies of observations in a descending order. • draws its name from an Italian economist, VilfredoPareto (1848–1923) • J. M. Juran is credited with being the ﬁrst person to apply it to industrial problems

8. Table 2.3 Nonconformities and Associated Monetary Losses

9. Pareto Chart on Nonconformities

10. Pareto Chart on Monetary Losses

11. 2.3 Scatter Plots • A scatter plot is another simple graphical device • The simplest type is a bivariate scatter plot, in which two quantities are plotted. • Scaling of the two axes is somewhat arbitrary • A time sequence plot is a type of scatter plot in that data on one variable are plotted against a second variable, time. • A probability plot is another type of scatter plot.

12. Table 2.4 Data for Quality Improvement Program

13. Table 2.4 Data for Quality Improvement Program

14. Variations of Scatter Plots • Use number or special symbols for duplicated data points. • Use “range frames”, instead of scales

15. 2.4 Control Charts • A control chart is a time sequence plot with “decision lines” added. • These decision lines are used to try to determine whether or not a process is in control. • Type I and II errors

16. 10 9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Typical Control Chart Upper control limit 2s 1s Central Line 95% 99.73% 1s Lower control limit -1 -3 -2 =0 1 2 3 2s Sample number

17. 2.5 Check Sheet • A check sheet is a means of recording historical data on causes of nonconformities or nonconforming units. • The general idea is to record all pertinent information relative to nonconformities and nonconforming units, so that the sheets can facilitate process improvement. • Such information might include notes on raw materials, machine performance, or operator changes.

18. 2.6 Cause-and-Effect Diagram • The cause-and-effect diagram was introduced in Japan in 1943 by Professor Kaoru Ishikawa of the University of Tokyo. • For that reason it is sometimes called an Ishikawa diagram; it has also been called a ﬁshbone chart.

19. Cause-and-Effect Diagram

20. 2.7 Defect Concentration Diagram • It is simply a schematic diagram that shows the various sides of a unit of production, with the positions where nonconformities occur pinpointed.

21. Defect Concentration Diagram

22. 2.8 The 7 Newer Tools • Afﬁnity Diagram • Interrelationship Digraph • Tree Diagram • Prioritization Matrix • Matrix Diagram • Process Decision Program Chart • Activity Network Diagram

23. 2.8.1 Afﬁnity Diagram • An afﬁnity diagram is a set of ideas about a particular topic that are grouped into clusters. • The diagram is the end product of brainstorming that is performed in a prescribed manner.

24. 2.8.1 Afﬁnity Diagram

25. 2.8.2 Interrelationship Digraph • An interrelationship digraph is used for identifying and exploring causal relationships between related ideas. • This is a step beyond an afﬁnity diagram, as an interrelationship digraph is a ﬁgure with arrows indicating relationships between ideas.

26. 2.8.2 Interrelationship Digraph

27. 2.8.3 Tree Diagram • A tree diagram is somewhat similar to a cause-and-effect diagram in that a desired effect (e.g., reducing delivery delays) can be shown pictorially as related to the factors that can lead to the effect. • A tree diagram will generally more closely resemble a company organizational chart in appearance than a cause-and-effect diagram. • A tree diagram is a more structured display than either an afﬁnity diagram or an interrelationship digraph.

28. 2.8.3 Tree Diagram

29. 2.8.4 Prioritization Matrix • A prioritization matrix is a relative ranking of issues jobs, objectives, products, and so on. • The ranking is accomplished by comparing the components pairwise so that a logical and consistent ranking results.

30. 2.8.4 Prioritization Matrix

31. 2.8.5 Matrix Diagram • A matrix diagram is used for showing relationships between two or more sets of ideas, projects, and so on. • The matrix can have one of several different forms. • At least ﬁve forms have been used: • C-shaped • L-shaped • T-shaped • X-shaped, and • Y-shaped

32. 2.8.5 Matrix Diagram

33. 2.8.6 Process Decision Program Chart • A process decision program chart is a listing of undesirable events and corresponding contingency actions relative to planned actions. • It is used when there is considerable concern about the possibility of negative unanticipated outcomes.

34. 2.8.6 Process Decision Program Chart

35. 2.8.7 Activity Network Diagram • This is essentially a combination of two well-known techniques: PERT (Program Evaluation and Review) and CPM (Critical Path Method).

36. 2.8.7 Activity Network Diagram