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  1. MoHEST & MOYASTIVET WORKSHOP Defining ICT Competencies for TIVET Lecturers/Instructors in Kenya TIVET and 21st Century Learning Kenya Institute of Education 2-4 June2010

  2. Outline • The Broader Context • 21st Century Learning and Skills • Kozma’s Knowledge Ladder • Case Studies

  3. Knowledge Society - A Strategic Choice for Development World of Knowledge & Innovation (R&D) World of Money ( GDP) Globalized world: knowledge is increasingly the key factor of production as well as a raw material for economic development. Information, knowledge and innovation based businesses are taking over many of the traditional sectors of commerce and industry (great unbundling of production). While the transition to knowledge-based economies and societies is progressing, the gap between developing countries and developed or industrialized countries can be wideningdue to the lower investments in ICT, education and innovation processes in developing countries UNCTAD_Knowledge and Innovation.doc

  4. Development blueprint: 2008-2030 • Transform Kenya into a globally competitive and prosperous nation providing a high quality life to all its citizens by the year 2030” • Vision based on three “pillars”: the economic, the social and the political • Intensified applications of STI • Globally competitive and adaptive human resource base

  5. Global Trends • Pervasiveness of ICTs: increased pace of change • New knowledge and new technologies resulted in creation of new products, services and jobs • Stress on education and training systems to respond to constant change

  6. Implications for Education, Training and Skills Development • Education major pillar of and role in Knowledge Society/Economy • Paradigm shifts required in education and training • Develop human capital with requisite skills • Focus on 21st century learning and skills • Holistic and coordinated approaches

  7. 21st century learning, Learning Point Associates

  8. Is ICT integration the solution? • ICT is often seen as being a ‘solution’: • Delivering relevant quality instructional material • Supporting student self directed learning • “anywhere” and “anytime” • Enhancing teachers’ skillsand knowledge • Promoting international collaborationand networking • BUT … • ICT is also part of the fundamental shiftin teaching and learning styles from didactic to constructivist • They are notthe ‘cheap’ solutionthat many people have argued • (Unwin 2004)

  9. Kozma’s Knowledge Ladder Conceptual tool to think about the introduction and leveraging of ICT in a coordinated way that is sensitive to the current education and training context and can advance economic and social development goals. Key: leverage strengths to make improvements

  10. Kozma’s Knowledge Ladder: Using ICT and Education Reform to Advance Economic and Social Development Goals Basic Education/Skills Knowledge Acquisition Knowledge Deepening Knowledge Creation

  11. Paradigm Shift: Knowledge and Learning Didactic Single way of knowing Transmission of knowledge Reading and writing principle access route Reproducing knowledge Learning as a solitary activity Constructivist Plural way of knowing Learning is a reconstruction of knowledge Interactive digital worlds as alternative route to knowledge Producing and sharing knowledge, participating at times as expert Learning collaboratively with others

  12. Existing ICT integration frameworks: UNESCO Integration in stages • The introduction and use of ICT in education proceeds in broad stages that may be conceived as a continuum or series of steps, namely: Emerging, Applying, Infusing, Transforming • Each of the successive stages in the continuum gets richer in both technology and pedagogyin terms of quality and complexity Temechgn 2009

  13. Emerging stage • Educational establishments just beginning to explore the possibilities and consequences of using ICTfor institutional management and adding ICT to the curriculum • Pedagogically speaking, institutions at this stage are still firmly grounded in traditional, teacher-centered practice.

  14. Applying Stage Administrators and teachers use ICT for tasks already carried outin institutional management and in the curriculum Teachers involve themselves in integrating ICT to acquire specific subject skills and knowledge, beginning to change their teaching methodology in the classroom, and using ICT to support their training and professional development

  15. Infusing stage • Educational institutions involved in integrating or embedding ICT across the curriculum, and in employing a range of computer-based technologies in laboratories, classrooms, and administrative offices. • The curriculumalso begins to merge subject areas to reflect real-world applications. • The teachers use ICTto manage not only the learning of their studentsbut also their own learning

  16. Transforming stage • Educational institutions involved in integrating or embedding ICT across the curriculum, and in employing a range of computer-based technologies in laboratories, classrooms, and administrative offices. • The emphasis changes from teacher-centered to learner-centred. • Institutions at this stage of ICT4TED development have become centre of learning for their communities.

  17. 6 Components of development path • Policy and vision • Curriculum and assessment • Pedagogy • ICT infrastructure • Organisation and management • Professional development

  18. Zambia

  19. Zambia Chawama Skills Training Centre: ICT integration into youth promotion and in vocational training • Training and production centre (2001); ICT skills training facility (2006) added • Started with carpentry and joinery skills, designing, cutting and tailoring skills • Added power electrical and house wiring skills, automotive mechanics skills, welding and metal fabrication skills

  20. Zambia (cont.) • Production centre integrated carpentry with tailoring to provide services like upholstery and metal fabrication • Added services for income generation through ICT skills training: audio music recording, video recording, secretarial services, graphic design, internet to the public • Some lessons delivered through ICT (PowerPoint); some learning materials and lesson plans obtained from internet • ICT used for improving quality of training and better preparation of youth for entrepreneurship and employment • Experiences leveraged in development of much larger programme for 16 Youth Resource Centres

  21. Zambia (cont.) • Staff trained and developed new competencies • Some staff members left due to better offers Rodgers Mulenga:Youth Promotion through ICT in Vocational Skills Training Centres, eLearning Africa, 2010

  22. Romania

  23. Romania • Project to establish regional network of vocational education and training centres in Central and Western Romania for more flexible and adaptable VET • Inter-institutional partnership: Petru Maior University (Romania) and University College in Trondheim (Norway) • Transfer of knowledge, good practice and state of the art video communication solutions • Aims to stimulate and improve quality, accessibility and supply of VET services for human resource development, provide more flexible training paths, and renovation of teaching infrastructure

  24. Romania (cont.) • State of the art digital classroom, infrastructure, computer laboratories • Instructor training programme for development and deployment of instructor training • Blended learning methods: on-site training, self-paced learning through LMS, video streaming and videoconferencing, theoretical and practical tasks, collaborative laboratory work • Evaluation of training methods and dissemination of good practice

  25. Romania (cont.) • Range of courses: Quality management, Health and Safety Management, Environmental Management, Economical Engineering • Interactive teaching model and instructional feedback loop facilitated by Student Response Systems (SRS) • Problem-based learning Liviu Moldovan: Innovative Tools and Models for eLearning in Vocational Education and Training, eLA, 2010

  26. Mauritius

  27. Mauritius (cont.) • Recognition: new mindset and new approaches required to provide wider and sustainable access to tertiary education and training • Recognition: rapid pace of change and half-life of knowledge- regular curricular updates • Job related, accessible, available and affordable education • Shift from traditional ‘chalk and talk’ to more inquiry-based approaches facilitated by technology tools • Innovative methods and partnership = cost-effective learning • Fundamental restructuring of curriculum and educational delivery

  28. Mauritius (cont.) • Strategic alliances between institutions and business and industry • Closer linkages to world of work • Use of ICT in upgrade of curriculum and in teaching/learning process • Distance education centre using technology assisted delivery: virtual classroom environment • Modular structure: flexible learning, on-line exams from 2010 • Quality control by University: staff and student performance monitored • Regular staff training Suresh Munbodh: Global Learning. Provision of Job Related, Available, Accessible and Affordable Education, 2009.

  29. Group discussions: where are they on the Knowledge Ladder?