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CHAPTER #1-INTERDEPENDENCE OF LIVING THINGS
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  1. CHAPTER #1-INTERDEPENDENCE OFLIVING THINGS What is Ecology? Study of the environment and its surroundings Environment-Everything around you LIVING NON-LIVING Cells: organized to form tissues Tissues: organized to form organs Organs: organized to form organ systems systems individual

  2. Systems: Breathing Circulatory Digestive Skeletal LEVELS OF BIOLOGICAL ORGANIZATION Population: group of individuals of same species living together in the same area Community: All living things in an area Biome: Large geographical area with a characteristic climate Biosphere: Region on earth in which life exists

  3. Individual (Level 1) Population (Level 2) Community (Level 3) Biome (Level 4) Biosphere (Level 5) Ecosystem: Interacting system that consists of a group of organisms Biotic: Living Abiotic: Non-living Respiration: “Burning” of fuels within cells

  4. Glucose: Main fuel of reaction -Simple Sugar Catalysts: Permits “burning” at temperatures that will not damage the organism(s) Enzymes: Organic Catalysts PRODUCERS COMSUMERS DECOMPOSERS Trophic Levels: Feeding levels Producers- Create their own food

  5. Auto-trophs: Self Feeders Consumers: Organisms that feed on other organisms Heterotrophs: Feed on other organisms 1st Order Consumer: feed directly on producers Herbivore: Plant Eaters Carnivores: Meat Eaters Omnivores: Consume both plant & meat 1st order carnivores: feed on herbivores 2nd order consumer

  6. 2nd Order Carnivores: feed on 1st order carnivores 3rdOrder Consumer Top Carnivores: Humans Predators: Carnivores which feed on live animals Prey: Animals which are eaten Scavengers: Feed on/in dead organisms Saprophytes: Fungi and bacteria which feed of dead organisms Decomposers: Mainly bacteria -Break down and feed on non-living organic matter

  7. Food Web: Organisms in an ecosystem linked together Photosynthesis: Food Production for Plants CHAPTER #2-STRUCTURE OF AN ECOSYTEM Biotic: Living Abiotic: Non-Living Habitat: Is the place in which it lives Niche: Organism is its total role in the community Competition: Same habitat and similar niches

  8. Food Web: Interdependence and interrelated system of plants and animals Ecological Pyramids: Pyramid of Numbers: -many producers –few carnivores –many parasites TAXONOMY OF LIVING THINGS Kingdom-Phylum-Class-Order-Family-Genus-Species-Variety Pouch Animals: Viviparous-give birth to live young Oviparous: Produce eggs

  9. Pyramid of Biomass: Heavy carnivores/Light producers Biomass-total of mass of all living organisms Pyramids of Energy: The efficiency with which energy is passed along the food chain is more important than either the numbers of organisms or their biomass Special Feeding Relationships Symbiosis: Living together -Close association between 2 organisms of different species in which at least 1 of the 2 benefits

  10. 3 Kinds of Symbiosis: -Parasitism -Mutalism -Commensalism Parasitism: Relationship between 2 organisms in which 1 benefits and the other suffers harm Benefits: Parasite Harmed: Host Mutalism: 2 organisms in which both benefit

  11. Terrestrial Ecosystem: Land Creatures Range of Tolerance: Depends on Factor and Organisms Optimum: Point at which animal lives the best Aquatic Ecosystems: Water creatures What affects land organisms? What affects water organisms? CHAPTER #3-FLOW OF MATTER & ENERGY IN ECOSYSTEMS

  12. Flow of Energy in Ecosystems: -Activity is the essence of life -Where do organisms get their energy -What happens to energy in ecosystems Energy Flow is One-Way: Clover –Rabbit-Fox -Energy is gradually lost along a food chain -For an ecosystem to keep operating, energy must always enter it from the sun -Is energy lost in a food web

  13. Pyramid of Energy: Nutrients Most ecosystems need over 20 elements: -Nitrogen -Oxygen Mineral Nutrients: originally entered the ecosystem from bedrock Non-Mineral Nutrients: Entered the ecosystem in the form of H2O & CO2 3 Non-Mineral Nutrients:

  14. CARBON HYDROGEN OXYGEN BUILDING BLOCKS OF LIFE Macro-Nutrients: large amounts Nitrogen-Phosphorus-Potassium Micro-Nutrients: small amounts Zinc-Iron-Sodium Nutrient Cycle: Recycled through an ecosystem

  15. Water Cycle: Transportation Precipitation Surface Runoff Percolation Ground Water Capillary Water: Carbon Cycle Nitrogen Cycle: 78% of atmosphere is (N2)-must be in form of nitrate (NO3) to be used Changing of nitrogen to nitrates is called: NITROGEN FIXATION

  16. Phosphorus: Water & Soil in inorganic compounds Nutrients pass through cycles “Balance” usually exists in nutrients Chapter #4-Ecological Succession Replacement of plants and animals in an area over a period of time Sand Dune Environment: Wind blows sand inland Strong Winds Lack of Nutrients Shifting Winds Few Nutrients High day Temps Intense Light Low night Temps

  17. Pioneer Stage: Pioneer Plant-first plant to emerge Shrub Stage: Added nutrients & water Example: Sand Cherry Cottonwood Stage: Dominant Plants Provides Shade Example: Cottonwood & Poplars Index Plants: Common to area

  18. Index Plants: Common to Area Pine Stage: Enrich soil Example: Pine Trees Oak Stage: Dominate Species Shade tolerant Species Examples: Basswood/Hickory

  19. Climax Stage: Climax Community-young plants replace old plants Variety/Diversity of plants Succession: Plant succession of grasses to climax forest Animal Succession: Living things can change their environment; gradual replacement of living things by another over time

  20. Animal Succession: -Species Diversity -Population Numbers -Niche availability increases -Total biomass & organic matter increases -Complexity increases Sand Dune Protection: -Solutions? Types of Succession: -Primary

  21. Succession begins in an area that has not supported life within recent times Secondary: Begins in area that once supported life Autotrophic & Heterotrophic Succession: -Primary and secondary succession examples of autotrophic succession -Heterotrophic succession: -Energy source-deaden material -Example: Fallen Log Each stage has its special community of living things

  22. Lichens: Single type of organism -Pioneers of succession Mutualism: Both benefit -Crustose Lichens- first to colonize -Hyphae Lichens- obtain nutrients from placing acid into rocks -Foliose Lichens- Leaf like-use the freeze-thaw method -Froticose Lichens- Moss like-developed in soil Succession in Lake Regions:

  23. Pioneers: pigweed-ragweed-dandelions Meadow Stage: Grassy area Old Field Community: -Dominated by biennials & perennials -Examples: goldenrod & milkweed Quadrat Method: -Plots -Reliable measure of the properties of the total area Arrangement:

  24. Systematic arrangement: easier to plan & use -Spaced widely and easily as possible -Base Line -Transect Lines -Size of Quadrant -Number of Quadrant -Shape of Quadrant Importance Values: -Number which gives the relative importance of that species in an area

  25. Frequency: -How widely distributed are the plants Density: -How close together are the plants Cover: -How large the plants are in the area Frequency Equation: Density Equation: Cover Equation: Basal Area-relative cover of soil

  26. DBH-Diameter Breast Height Relative Frequency Equation: Relative Density Equation: Relative Cover Equation: Importance Value: Sustained Yield: cut trees are replaced by trees of the same species

  27. Sustainable Forestry Initiative: program is a comprehensive system of principles, objectives and performance measures developed by foresters, conservationists and scientists. It combines the growing and harvesting of trees with the long-term protection of wildlife, plants, soil and water quality. Chapter #5 Adaptations of organisms to temperature, moisture and wind

  28. Adaptation to Organisms: Structural Adaptations Behavioral Adaptations 5 Factors affecting Organisms: RANGE OF TOLERANCE -Temperature -Moisture -Wind -Light -Soil Conditions

  29. Optimum Point Optimum Temperature Organisms live best Range of Tolerance: Range between these extremes Poikilotherms: various temperatures Homeotherms: alike temperatures 2 Forms of Moisture: Organisms must adapt to: -Precipitation -Relative Humidity -Optimum moisture conditions

  30. Climate: dictates the type of vegetative growth Deciduous vs. Evergreen Factors Affecting Precipitation: -Direction of Prevailing winds -Topography (shape) of the land -Temperature Relative Humidity: Ratio of the mass of water in a certain volume of air to the mass of water needed to saturate the same volume of air at the same temperature

  31. Transpiration: water vapor released from plants Stomata: pores Epidermis: skin Water Content of Soil Hydrophytes: plants in extreme moisture conditions Xerophytes: very dry conditions Mesophytes: moisture conditions between the other 2 classes Adaptations to Moisture: Exoskeleton (thick body covering)

  32. Wind: -Advantages -Disadvantages Chapter #6 Adaptations of Organisms To Light and Soil 3 Aspects of Light affect Organisms: -Intensity-Brightness -Duration -Quality

  33. What is Light? -Sun gives off electromagnetic waves which have a wide range lengths Short: Gamma rays Long: Radio waves Light: Form of energy the eye can detect Ultraviolent Radiation: Shorter than 390 nanometers Infrared Radiation: Wave Lengths longer than 770 nanometers Intensity: Factors affecting intensity

  34. -Latitude -Time of year -Altitude -Time of Day -Topography -Cloud Cover Compensation Intensity: Intensity at which the light is just bright enough to make it possible for photosynthesis Primary Production: Rate at which energy is stored by producers through photosynthesis

  35. Saturation Intensity: maximum production Shade Tolerant: Like shade Shade Intolerant: Dislike shade Orientation: Direction of Growth Geotropism: Response to Gravity Phototropism: Response to Light Geotaxis: Gravity to stay vertical Photoaxis: Angle of Polarization Duration: Length of exposure Photoperiodism: Response to the length of day

  36. Long-day Short-day Day-neutral Perennials: Plants come up year after Annual: Finish life cycle in one year Quality: Referring to the color or wavelength of light Positively Phototactic: move toward bright light Negatively Phototactic: move away from bright light Microenvironment: Small Environment Microclimate: Small climate zone within a larger zone

  37. Unit #1-Water Collection Bodies Earth contains billions of gallons of water, however small portion is readily available and easily used by plants and animals About .8% of the earth’s water is present in the earth’s crust in a form that could be reclaimed Water stored in porous rock layers is called: Aquifers or Groundwater Large lakes, inland seas & rivers contain most of the earth’s usable surface water. More than half of this water is stored in freshwater lakes. Small portion is stored in salt lakes.

  38. Extremely small portions are found in rivers and streams 2 Categories in Pennsylvania: -Running Water -Standing Water Running water handles the surplus amounts of water that exists. They are involved with the process of evapotranspiration Running Water Gravity primary mover of surface water

  39. Pennsylvania contains a large number of LIMESTONESTREAMS that serve as natural BUFFERS to acidic fallout & support many forms of aquatic life not found in FREESTONE STREAMS Limestone Streams: usually spring from deep cavities which contain calcium salts Freestone Streams: Start with high mountain springs where soil is thin & they continually increase in size with the addition of feeder

  40. 2 Classifications of Streams in Pennsylvania: -Cold Water -support trout & aquatic plants -Warm Water -Over 70 degrees -Bass, Carp and Catfish Channels: Runoff water follows these paths -These channels converge into a major final stream, drain a particularly well-drained land area

  41. Watershed: Main drainage basin River Basin: Large-well established watersheds supporting major rivers Brooks-Runs-Creeks-Rivers: -Classified by Size -1st order -2nd order -3rd order -4th order Coldwater: Usually colder than 70 degrees F Warmwater: Usually warmer than 70 degrees F

  42. 45, 000 square miles of land surface in Pennsylvania Pennsylvania drained by 3 large & 3 smaller river basins-6 total Smallest Basin: Genesee River- Northcentral Part of PA -Flows northward Erie Basin: -Drains Erie County & part of Lake Erie

  43. Potomac River Basin: -Drains the lower ridge & valleys of the south central part of the state 3 Large Rivers Delaware: Eastern border between New York & New Jersey Largest free flowing river in the eastern United States-No dams, locks, etc. Susquehanna River: Largest basin in Pennsylvania -Formed by 2 large branches: -Northern Branch-New York is where it begins

  44. West Branch-drains the North central part of the state Ohio River: 2nd largest river basin in Pennsylvania -Formed by Allegheny & Mongahela rivers in Pittsburgh -Flows 1,000 miles southwest to Mississippi river in Illinois -Drains western PA, parts of NY, western MD and northern WV -Contains small navigational locks & dams that permit large river barges to carry goods & raw materials from PA to other states

  45. 45,000 miles of stream channels drain Pennsylvania Pennsylvania: large exporter of water to other states & other types of collection bodies Unit #2-Freshwater Ecosystems 70%-Earth’s surface 97%-Earth’s water is salt 3%-Earth’s freshwater -of that 3%-98% is frozen -2% usable to humans

  46. Amazon River: South America -1,100 tributaries -Contains 65% of the world’s river water Functions of Freshwater: -Drinking water -Irrigating food crops Humans-80% is water 500,000 liters of water is used to produce 1 car WHAT HAS CAUSED INCREASED USE OF WATER? 2 Categories:

  47. Standing Water: pond Flowing Water: stream 2 Types: -Standing water -Wholly aquatic -ponds & lakes Partly Terrestrial: -marshes -swamps -carrs -bogs -fens Wetlands: Sloughs-ponds and small lakes with high nutrient values

  48. Potholes Limnologists: people who study standing water Stream Order: Classification of flowing waters -1st order=no tributaries -2nd order=2-1st order streams form 1 stream -3rd order=2-2nd order streams join 3 Reasons: -Originate in hilly country -slope high -stream speed is high -turbulence causes evaporation

  49. Small is size -shielded from sun by over-hangings Water from streams, springs, sub-surface runoff-contains cool water 2 Main Items: for stream order to increase -water becomes warmer -stream speed decreases Environmental Gradient: Gradual Change -Geophysical -Chemical -Biological

  50. Standing Water vs. Flowing Water: -Aeration-adding of oxygen to water -Source of Oxygen -Standing water=Photosynthesis Source of Food: -Autotrophic food chain-self feeding Detritus Food Chains: begins with non-living organic matter Heterotrophic Food Chains: other feeding food chains Adaptations of Organisms: