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Reaction in the Twenties

Reaction in the Twenties

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Reaction in the Twenties

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  1. Reaction in the Twenties Nativism The Red Scare Socialism & Anarchism very popular in regions with high immigrant populations Made “Old Stock” Americans suspicious Sacco-Vanzetti Case Nicola Sacco & Bartolomeo Vanzetti Arrested May 5, 1920 for robbery & murder Referred to as “those anarchist bastards” Convicted because of their political ideas & ethnic origins Immigration Restriction Emergency Immigration Act (1921) 3 % of 1910 census 1924 Quota Law Reduced to 2% of 1890 census Ignored Western Hemisphere immigrants This marks the end of European Immigration to the U.S.

  2. Immigration In U.S.

  3. Reaction in the Twenties The Klan Revived from Nativist views-William J. Simmons 100% Americanism Native Born White Protestants Expanded their views to include Roman Catholics, Jews, & Immigrants In addition to their hatred of African Americans Reaction to the shifting times New moral standards Declining influence of the Church Membership peaked at 3 to 8 million Immigration restriction helped decline Simmons beat a prostitute

  4. Reaction in the Twenties Fundamentalism Old-Time Religion Bible should be reconciled with biological theories of evolution Fearing withdraw from “traditional” values orthodox Christians took a militant view Fundamentalists William Jennings Bryan Anti-Evolution Bills Restrict the teaching of evolution Only so in South Scopes Monkey Trial John T. Scopes (TENN) Accepted offer to test law from ACLU American Civil Liberties Union Clarence Darrow prosecuted with Bryan assisting For biblical interpretation Judge ruled out scientific testimony Found Guilty Fined $100 Later overruled the fine on a technicality

  5. Scope Trial Political Cartoons

  6. Reaction in the Twenties Prohibition 1916 Elections Produced 2/3 majority in Congress January 16, 1919 18th Amendment Ratified New Batch of Criminals Prohibition did not deter America from drinking Bootlegging became way to get drinks Speakeasies & Hip Flasks Al Capone is the mostinfamous Gangster

  7. The Roaring Twenties The New Morality Revolution in manners & morals Originated with young people Especially on college campuses Fitzgerald This Side of Paradise (1920) The Flapper Discarded corsets, wore hair short (bobbed), heavy makeup, & skirts above the ankle Smoked cigarettes, drank in public, drove cars & defied Victorian Expectations Gibson Girl Flapper

  8. The Roaring Twenties The New Morality Sex Spoken about more freely Willingness to experiment Dr. Sigmund Freud 1909 visited Clark University Surprised to be well known in America Margaret Sanger & Birth Control Most controversial issue Margaret Sanger Nurse & Midwife Noticed many young mothers w/out $ to provide for a growing family Used first for families to control size The American Birth Control League (1921) Planned Parenthood (1942) Distributed birth-control information to doctors, social workers, women’s clubs & the scientific community Illegal 1936 Federal court ruled that doctors could prescribe contraceptives

  9. The Roaring Twenties The Jazz Age Dubbed by F. Scott Fitzgerald Young willing to experiment with new forms of recreation & sexuality Created in New Orleans Quickly spread to all major cities

  10. The Roaring Twenties The “New Negro” The Great Migration Most significant development 1910-1920 (323,000) 1920-1930 (615,000) Free to speak mind & act Increase of political activity Harlem Renaissance Literary & artistic movement Claude McKay Jamaican immigrant writer Harlem Shadow (1922) Jean Toomer Cane (1923) The Great Migration I & II

  11. The Roaring Twenties Marcus Garvey Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA) Personal liberation from surrounding white culture Envisioned every white person as a “potential Klansman” Called for an independent republic in Africa Jailed for fraudulent mail in fund-raising W.E.B. DuBois Labeled Garvey as an enemy of his race Founded NAACP in 1910 White liberals & Black activists Director & Editor of the Crisis Launched campaign against lynching

  12. The Roaring Twenties The Southern Renaissance Conflict between the dying world of tradition & the modern commercial world Conflict of values Ku Klux Klan & New Morality Thomas Wolfe Ashville, NC Look Homeward Angel Scandalized home town community William Faulkner Oxford, MISS Sartoris The Sound and the Fury

  13. Normalcy The Election of 1920 World War I Tired of idealistic goals Chicago, 1920 Ohio Senator Warren Gamaliel Harding “Return to Normalcy” Private Image Drank, smoked, chewed tobacco, played poker, & had numerous affairs Public Image Handsome, Charming, lovable Democrats James Cox Won on 44th ballot Franklin D. Roosevelt for VP Harding 404 Electoral Votes 16 Million Popular Votes Cox 127 Electoral Votes 9 Million Popular Votes

  14. Normalcy Early Appointments & Policy Charles Evans Hughes Secretary of State Herbert Hoover Commerce Department Andrew Mellon Treasury Department Henry Wallace Agriculture Department William Howard Taft Supreme Court Ohio Gang Group of appointments and advisors that Harding trusted unwisely Went about dismantling various Progressive reforms Administrative Corruption Ohio Gang Used White House connections for own good 1923, Head of Veterans Bureau Looting medical and hospital supplies Attorney General Implicated in miss handling German assets after WWI Plead the 5th Amendment Never indicted for lack of evidence

  15. Teapot Dome Oil reserve in Wyoming Set aside as Naval Reserve Albert B. Fall Assigned contracts that depleted reserves Earned $400,000 in bribes President Harding “My God, this is a hell of a job! … I have no trouble with my enemies, I can take care of my enemies all right. But my damn friends, my God-damn friends…They’re the ones that keep me walking the floor nights!” Died from food poisoning “Silent Cal” Father administered the Oath Colonel John Coolidge Calvin Coolidge visiting when heard news Sought to distance himself from Harding’s Ohio Gang Remains one of most uninvolved president in history Normalcy

  16. Normalcy Election of 1924 President Coolidge Took control of Republican Party Secured re-nomination Democratic Party Still fractured Nominated John W. Davis Progressive Party Robert M. La Follette Supported Socialist Party Coolidge 382 Electoral Votes 15 Million Popular Votes Davis 136 Electoral Votes 8 Million Popular Votes

  17. The New Era Consumer Culture More people than ever had $ Old time values of saving gave way Advertising Installment Payments Products Handheld Cameras Wristwatches Cigarette lighters Vacuum Cleaners Washing Machines Automobiles Hollywood 1896 1st motion picture show 1908 10,000 movie theaters Radio Served only basic communication until 1920 1922 508 Stations 3 million receivers WWJ in Detroit transmitted news bulletins Used Detroit Daily News 1st Radio Commercial New York in 1922 NBC (1926) Linked radio stations together CBS (1927) FCC (1934) Authority to control and regulate the airwaves

  18. The New Era Airplanes Wright Brothers (1903) Wilbur & Orville Flew 1st Airplane at Kitty Hawk, NC Government Subsidies Kelly Act (1925) Airmail contracts The Air Commerce Act (1926) Aided advancement in air transportation & navigation Constructed Airports Charles A. Lindbergh (1927) 1st Solo Transatlantic Flight 33.5 Hours Won $25,000 Amelia Earhart (1932) 1st Female Solo Transatlantic Flight Disappeared during Around-The-World Flight Disappeared on July 2, 1937 Automobile Most significant development 20th century Economic & Social 1st Car Sold 1895 Ford Motor Company (1903) Model T (1908) Tin Lizzie $850 drops to $290 Assembly Line Production Enabled for price decrease Stimulated other industries Steel. Oil, Rubber, Glass & Textiles Spindletop, Texas (1901)