Muslim Ummah :Its Role,Past, Present and Future,Challenges and Opportunities
Questions appeared in previous years • Q.No.2013. write down in detail the problems of “Ummah” in the contemporary world. • 2012-جدید تہذیب و تمدن کا نقطہ نظر بیان کرتے ہوۓ مسلم امہ پر اس کے اثرات بیان کیجیۓ • Q.7-2011-In the present period the Muslim Ummah is facing different problems and for the solution of these problem “ijtehad” is necessary, so point out such an institution that can offer solution of the new problems with the help of Ijtehad • Q.9-2011-In the present era, Muslim Ummah has all the resources, but it is the victim of disunity, while analysis the reasons of disunity, suggest measures to maintain unity amount the Muslim Ummah
OUT LINE • Concept of Ummah • The Past_Glorious • The Present_Turmoil • The Future_ ????? • Challenges faced by Muslim Ummah • Causes of debacle • Responsibilities • Suggestions • Problems in Implementation • Epilogue
Concept • The phrase Ummah in the Qur'an refers to all of the Islamic world unified. • The Quran says: “You [Muslims] are the best nation brought out for Mankind, commanding what is righteous (Ma'ruf, lit. "recognized [as good]") and forbidding what is wrong (Munkar, lit. "unrecognized [as good]")…” [3:110].
Concept “The Muslims, regardless of their origin, irrespective of their geographical boundaries and racial characteristics are one Ummah” (The Convention of Madina)
Pan-Islamism • Pan-Islamism is a political movement advocating the unity of Muslims under one Islamic state — often a Caliphate • Religious nationalism, Pan-Islamism differentiates itself from other pan-nationalistic ideologies
Concepts Shared by Intellectuals • AllamaIqbal: • All the Muslims beyond any difference of color, caste, nation, state, ideology at the basis of religion are called Muslim Ummah. • Syed Jamal-ud-din Afghani: • All the Muslim states constitute Ummah. He was preacher of Pa Islamism. • Shah WaliUllah: • Muslims belonging to Muslim states only constitute Muslim Ummah. • Muslims present in any part of the world are part of Muslim Ummah.
Introduction • Muslim Ummah has Glorious History which Produced; • Great Generals,Reformers, Thinkers, Scientists, Scholars and Astronomers • Today Muslims face a Common Threat of their Survival • Rise and fall is a social phenomenon, may be Muslim Ummah is facing its logical correction
Basis for Unity • We are all Muslims, we believe in one God i.e. Almighty Allah, we believe in one Prophet i.e. Muhammad (SallallahoAlaihewaAal-e-heeWasallam) and we all have the book of Allah i.e. Qur'an.
Early Division • This difference in approaches on purely a political issue divided the Muslims permanently. • However, there were no differences among Muslims regarding Islamic Jurisprudence and worshipping (Ibadaat). • If some differences occasionally appeared among them, they never considered it as a difference that could divide Muslims.
Cont… • Development of Islamic Jurisprudence (The science of Fiqah), four AhleSunnat Imams of Islamic Jurisprudence, Imam Abu Hanifah, Imam Malik, Imam Shafi'e and Imam Ahmed bin Hanbal learnt Islamic Jurisprudence from Imams of Ahle Bait • Imam Abu Hanifa was a student of Imam Ja'ffar us Sadiq • The major division among Muslims in Jurisprudence occurred when the Science of Fiqah (Islamic Jurisprudence) became a formal subject, the Sunni Muslims were divided into four Madhahib (ways), HANAFI, MALKI, SHAFI'E AND HANBALI.
Cont… • The local nationalism was never preferred over the worldwide Islamic brotherhood. • Imam Muslim, Imam Bukhari, Imam Trmidhi and many other Imams and scholars of Islam were non Arabs but no one felt that they were from n • Muslims were the leaders in setting up the standards for the rest of the world. • Muslims were educators, scientists, doctors, engineers, commanders, etc. • Muslims were the leaders and model for other communities and nations
The Start of Real Disunity • After almost 13 centuries of Muslim rule, the focus of Muslim Ummah changed. • What Qur'an describes the attributes of Muslims as, • "They (Muslims) are very kind among themselves but very hard on Kuffaar". • Muslims slowly adopted the opposite attributes. • They became very kind to KUFFAAR and very hard and cruel to
3 important areas hit by the west • Touheed • Cant be changed • Risalat , • West develop and support few Muslims who are willing to challenge the honour and authority of Muhammad (peace be upon him). • Holy Book, • we believe that Qur'an is the word of God and can not be changed. • West develop and support those Muslims scholars who will be able to provide "new" meanings to the Qur'anic verses and interpret them "differently"
00-100 AH • Period of Nabuwat • Period of Khilafat • HazratUmerFarooq (R.A) Iran, Iraq, Palestine and Egypt were conquered. • HazratUsman (R.A) Afghanistan, Qabris, Tunis and Moroco were conquered. • Hazrat Ali (R.A) • Jang-e-Nehrwan with Kharji, Jang-e-Jaml with Hazrat Ayesha (R.A) and Jang-e-Safeen with AmeerMuawia.
Cont…. • During the period of H AmeerMuawia Muslims got military strength. After AmeerMuawia long chain of government is being followed. • Muawia---Yazid---Muawia II---Merwan---Abdul Malik---Waleed Bin Malik • In the period of Waleed Bin Malik great victories came in part of Muslims. • Muhammad Bin Qasim conquered Sindh • Qateebah Bin Muslim Conquered Turkistan • Tariq Bin Ziyad conquered Spain, Portugal • Musa Bin Naseer conquered Undlus, Africa • After this Islam emerged as power and penetrated in whole world quickly.
100-500 AH • Period of Umer Bin Abdul Aziz • Hasham Bin Malik ruled over Central Asia, Roam • Periodof Khilafat-e-Bnu Abbas • Haroon-ur-Rasheed laid stress on education and he developed schools and colleges to spread education. Muslims got strength in education in his period.
Three Major Powers • Umayyad • Lost control of the empire in 750, but set up control of Muslim lands in Spain • Abbasids • Took over the empire from the Umayyad Dynasty, moving the capital from Damascus to Baghdad • Fatimid • An off-shoot of the Abbasids, they controlled most of North Africa and Western Arabia
Cont…. • Bring the period 300-400AH Khilafat was divided. • Aal-e-boya Iran • Fatimi Egypt • Ghazni Alpatagin • Banu Idrees Africa • Umvi Undlus • From 400-500 AH Shia-Suni split happened.
500-1000 AH • 500-600 Crusades (Noor-ud-Din Zangi and Salah-u-Din Ayubi) • 600-700 was a period of Tatars attacks and falloff Baghdad 1258 • First Qibla captured by Crusaders • 700-800 Ameer Taimoor-Mahood Garan accepted Islam. And havoc was turned • 800-900 height of Ottoman Empire • Rule of Banu Abbass ended in 923 AH • 900-1000 Saleem Usmani, Ottoman Empire
Fall of Roman Empire • The Fourth Crusade (1202–1204) was originally intended to conquer Muslim-controlled Jerusalem by means of an invasion through Egypt. • In 204 Constantinople, capital of the Eastern Roman Empire (Byzantine Empire). • The Empire received a mortal blow in 1204 by the Fourth Crusade, when it was dissolved and divided into competing Byzantine Greek and Latin realms. Despite the eventual recovery of Constantinople and re-establishment of the Empire in 1261
1000-1400 AH • 1000-1100 period of fall • 1100-1200 wars with Russia, Astria, Attack of Abdalli,Durrani on India • 1200-1300 Egypt Vs Ottomans, rebellion in Bosnia, Napoleon’s attacks, Wahabiz at Hijaz • 1300-1400 fall of Khilafat • I-WW, II-WW
Cause of glory • Muslims enjoyed victories • They had strong military • They were at peak in education, justice and culture • They were one Ummah • They had strong economy and Jihad was basic tool of strong economy.
Conflict Ridden Muslim World • The conflicts in Afghanistan, Pakistan, Somalia, Algeria, Turkey, Egypt, Lebanon, Bangladesh, Iraq,Lebyia, Palestine, Syria • Think of any !!!
Political Capital • Organization of Islamic Cooperation-OIC • ECO • Arab League • African Union • UNO 57 Members • No Veto
Social Capital • Geostrategic importance • Combine location of most Islamic states • Universal Religion • 99% literacy rate in CARs, 57 % in Pakistan, • Iran exhibit high scientific publication growth arte in 2009 • From seven three great : Egyptian, Gandhara, Indus/Moenjodaro Civilizations are in Muslim Countries
Economic Capital • Collective population of member states is 1.6 billion as 2009-10 • Combined GDP of $ 13 Trillion • Turkey had highest GDP on 2010 among OIC members as $ 729 Billion • OPEP: Except Venezuela 34% oil contribution comes from Muslim world • In Euro Zone, 575 B$ contribution is of Arab world in insurance banking and stock exchange.
The Status of Democracy Index (SDI) • Measures each country's progress toward democratic governance through multiple variables • Governance • Freedom • HDI • Religious liberty. • Economic Freedom
SDI…. • Only three of these countries—Mali, Guyana, and Suriname, together representing less than 1 percent of the Muslims present in the survey group—are considered full democracies. • The rest of the countries in the index are considered partial democracies or partial autocracies, with four countries—Chad, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, and Uzbekistan, together representing almost 20 percent of the population—being full autocracies • Democracy in the Middle East and North Africa is the exception rather than the rule
Guns and Butter • Countries must determine how much of their money to spend on guns—order and security—and butter, that is, spending that enhances social harmony and economic prosperity. • The Status of Democracy Index score serves to illustrate the guns versus butter dilemma.
Analysis • The greater percentage of Muslims a country had relative to its overall population, the lower its SDI score • The higher a country's GDP per capita, the lower its SDI score • The greater percentage of a country's GDP that is devoted to military expenditures, the lower its SDI score • The greater a country's military expenditure percentage, the lower its SDI
Challenges faced by Muslim Ummah • Illiteracy • Terrorism • Poverty-HDI • Autocracy-SDI • Far behind in Science and Technology • No Veto Powers Concentration of wealth Redefining the role of women Lack of Institutional Ijtehad Occupied Lands War ridden Economies
Illiteracy rate and poor standards (World Bank, 2008) • Best: Jordan & Kuwait • Worst: Djibouti, Yemen, Iraq and Morocco • Study of Arab league: • 30% of Arab population are illiterate. • 0.3% of GDP of Arab States is devoted to scientific research. • $5-7 per capita is spent on R&D in Arab States. • $1000 per capita is spent on R&D in China. • 600 research centers in Arab world vs 1500 in France alone. • 30% of scientists in the US are from Arab countries
Causes of Debacles: • Forgetting Shariah • Materialism • Internal conflicts-Division • Nationalism -Regionalism (Arab, Non Arab or Arab, African) • Sectarian • Internal and International conspiracies • Illiteracy, poverty and conservatism • Leaving Jihad and spirituality
Cont… • Acting off beam philosophies including deen-eIlahi, Wahdat-ul-Wujood, Mootazilla • Aqeedat and Taqleed, Khangahi approach • Irrational customs-Innovations and Biddat • Traitors • 1757, Battle Palassi, NawabSiraj-ud-Dola • 1799, SarangaPatam, Tipu Sultan • 1857, Dehli, Bahadur Shah Zafar • 1739, Sultan Nizam-ul-Mulk • Meer Jaffar was traitor of Tipu Sultan and Meer Sadiq was traitor of Sultan Nizam-ul-Mulk