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The Essential Feature of Individual Supports: Systems, Systems, Systems

The Essential Feature of Individual Supports: Systems, Systems, Systems

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The Essential Feature of Individual Supports: Systems, Systems, Systems

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  1. The Essential Feature of Individual Supports: Systems, Systems, Systems Tim Lewis, Ph.D. University of Missouri Barbara Mitchell Columbia Public Schools

  2. This morning… • Brief overview of key features of individual PBS assessment and plan development • Necessity of changing learning environments = need for system support • One middle school example

  3. Big Ideas Understand interaction between behavior and the teaching environment Behavior is functionally related to the teaching environment Build Positive Behavior Support Plans that teach pro-social “replacement” behaviors Create environments to support the use of pro-social behaviors (practice, practice, practice) Around individual student need / self-management Classroom School-wide

  4. Basic Steps in FBA-BIP Process Conduct functional behavioral assessment Create plan based on functional assessment outcome Develop infra-structure to support behavior change (system change)

  5. Positive Behavior Support Plan • Teach replacement behavior(s) that result in same/similar outcome • Environment should not allow problem behavior to result in previous outcomes • Ideally replacement behavior should be more efficient than problem behavior

  6. FBA – PBS Plan Process Success requires: • Individual(s) with expertise in FBA-PBS • Fluency with a clear process among all staff whereby roles are clearly defined • A basic understanding of Applied Behavior Analysis (Behavior is functionally related to the teaching environment) among all school staff

  7. Essential Steps to Individual PBS Plans • Request for assistance • Operationally define problem/replacement behavior • Background/archival data/ data collection/Environmental Assessment • Functional Behavioral Assessment • Indirect measures • Direct observation • Develop hypothesis regarding function of problem behavior • Develop a PBS plan • Social skill instruction • Self management • Environmental modifications • Implement, Monitor and Evaluate progress

  8. How do schools get there? Build parallel systemic processes • Provide school/district teams with a process to address the presenting challenge • Develop a parallel process for districts/states to support school implementation and continue to expand with integrity

  9. Social Competence & Academic Achievement Positive Behavior Support OUTCOMES Supporting Decision Making Supporting Staff Behavior DATA SYSTEMS PRACTICES Supporting Student Behavior

  10. Research Findings on “Scaling Up”(Fixsen, Naoom, Blase, Friedman, & Wallace, 2005, p. 70) • Best evidence documents what doesn’t work: • Information dissemination alone • Training by itself

  11. Research Findings on “Scaling Up”(Fixsen, Naoom, Blase, Friedman, & Wallace, 2005, p. 70) • What works • Long term, multi-level approaches • Skills-based training • Practice-based coaching • Practioner performance-feedback • Program evaluation • Facilitative administrative practices • Methods for systems intervention

  12. Applied Work in Progress Gentry Middle School

  13. Background and Context • PBS in Columbia Public Schools • 18 elementary buildings • 3 middle schools • 3 junior highs • 3 high school programs • 17,000 students

  14. Gentry Middle School • Three core teams per grade level • Five general education teachers • One special education /One paraprofessional • Elective team • Literacy support center • Self-contained/Special education • Administrative team

  15. PBS at Gentry Year 1-2 • Universal Features • Administrative and faculty buy in • Building wide expectations (RRKS) • PBS team • Matrix

  16. PBS at GentryYear 3-4 • Universal Features • Lesson plans • Redesign office referral • Track discipline data • System for acknowledging (RRKS Ribbon) • Team process revisited

  17. PBS at GentryYear 5-6 • Universal Features • Revisit matrix • Lesson plans and teaching schedule • Behavioral expectations posted • RRKS Ribbon data collection • Assign sub-committee work

  18. The Saga Begins • Student Assistance Team (SAT) • Administrator • School psychologist • Counselors • Team teacher • Behavior specialist • Goal = Individual supports

  19. Painful Lessons… • Year 1: Floundering, Flailing and Failing • Inadequate universal supports • Targeted interventions not systematic or data-based • Individual plans overwhelming and ineffective

  20. Initial Outcomes • Multiple changes in individual plans • Ineffective supports for teachers and students • Loss of time • Increased number of referrals • Diminished credibility

  21. The Saga Continues • Year 2: Reinforcements Arrive • Outside expertise • Administrative supports • Money • Meetings • Melee

  22. Building Systems • How to get there • Clarify process for accessing support • Reorganize process for disseminating effective practice • Provide training, tools and support

  23. Process for Accessing Support AIS - SAT Flowchart

  24. Process for Disseminating Practice SAT Process Teacher Training and Support Targeted Interventions Individual Student Plans SAT Team Administrator Counselor Behavior Specialist STAT Team Core Team/Classrooms Implement AIS Monitor Progress Refer to SAT Core Team Representative SAT Partner Core Team Teachers *Meets Weekly RRKS Team School-Wide Systems Matrix Lesson Plans School-Wide Data Acknowledgement Communication Core Team Representative District PBS Support Building Administrator and Counselors *Meets Monthly

  25. Provide Skills-Based Training • Training Model • SAT members with behavior specialist • Behavior basics and management • SAT process • Function-linked strategies • SAT members with STAT team representative • SAT and STAT with core team teachers

  26. Provide Tools • Tools for Teachers • SAT flowchart • Pyramid to Success • RRKS TOC • AIS guide (Alternative Intervention Strategies)

  27. Pyramid to Success for All • Office Issues • Bus referrals, Truancy, Chronic offender, Threatening student or adult, Fighting, Refusal to go to or Disruptive in Buddy Room, Sexual harassment, Weapons, Drug/cigarettes/ tobacco/alcohol, Assault – physical or verbal • Teacher Method for handling student behaviors • Referral Form – send student to office with completed form • Process with student before re-entry • Office Method for handling student behaviors • Proactive: RRKS Review, Parent Contact • Corrective: Loss of Privilege, Saturday detention, Opportunity Center, Suspension, etc. Team Issues Repeated minor & major disruptions in multiple classrooms, Throwing things, Hallway/Lockers problems, Attendance, Repeated disrespect to peers or adults, Cheating, Inappropriate to substitute, Insubordination, Chronic Disruptions Method for handling student behaviors Proactive: Parent contact (mandatory), RRKS review, Team conference, Team conference with student, Team conference with Parents, Team conference with Administrator/Counselor, Triage in the AM with the student, Triage at lunch with the student, Team Focus, etc. Corrective:Removal of privilege on team, Recovery Study Hall, Buddy Room, etc. Classroom Teacher Issues Out of seat, Talking to classmates, Talking out, Off-task, Violation of class rules, Inappropriate language, Lack of materials, Gum, Disrespect, Cheating, Tardies, Minor destruction of property Method for handling student behaviors Proactive: Positive call to parents, Use praise, Use Rewards, Daily/Weekly Goal sheets, Proximity to instructor, Provide choices, One-to-One assistance, Pre-correct for transitions/trouble situations, Regular breaks for exercise, Give a job, RRKS Review, Reward lunch with teacher, etc. Corrective: One and only one REDIRECT, RRKS Review, Safe-seat, Buddy Room, Think Sheet, Parent Phone call, Lunch Detention, Recovery Study Hall, Removal of privilege in classroom, etc.

  28. RRKS TOC (front side) RRKS – Time Out of ClassCode: _____ Student: _________________________ Date:______________________ Incident Time: ____________________# of min. out of rm.: __________ Teacher: _______________________Subject: ____________________ What did you do/not do that got you sent out of class? ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Circle the RRKS expectation that was not followed: Respect Responsible Kind Safe What will you do differently next time?______________________________________

  29. RRKS TOC (back side) • Processing Checklist: • Processing data & time: • Review with the student reason he/she was sent out. • Teach & practice replacement behavior. • Provide positive reinforcement for replacement behavior. • Check the setting in which the behavior occurred. Minor List: Circle the appropriate code

  30. Provide Ongoing Support • Weekly, skills-based, with feedback • Periodic, intensive, with follow-up • Example: 2007-08 Sessions • Classroom/team universals • AIS process • Follow-up AIS • Peer observations • Feedback and systems maintenance

  31. A Happy Ending… • Outcomes to Date • Increased implementation of universals • Paradigm shift • Building infra-structure to sustain individual supports

  32. How do schools get there? Build parallel systemic processes Provide school/district teams with a process to address the presenting challenge Develop a parallel process for districts/states to support school implementation and continue to expand with integrity

  33. Pulling It All Together • Success in building sustained systems • Long-term, multi-level approach • Skills-based training • Practice-based coaching • Practitioner performance-feedback • Program evaluation • Facilitative administrative practices • Methods for systems intervention

  34. Big Ideas • Understand interaction between behavior and the teaching environment Behavior is functionally related to the teaching environment • Build Positive Behavior Support Plans that teach pro-social “replacement” behaviors • Create environments to support the use of pro-social behaviors • Around individual student need / self-management • Classroom • School-wide