Chivalry, The Crusades and King Arthur Fazzini English IV
The first quiz of the unit… • Will be on the following topics: • The Crusades • Video and notes from last class, today and next class • King Arthur and Chivalry • Readings and notes from today and the next two classes • Robin Hood • We will read two Robin Hood ballads next week and discuss the legend • You will also need to know the format of a ballad • We already did this
Writing--20 minutes • In a 1-2 paragraph response, describe how men should act towards, respect, or otherwise treat women. Has this changed over the last 50 years? If so, why? You can take any approach you wish to this prompt, but you must • a) use appropriate language • b) have solid reasoning behind your response. • We will discuss these responses after I have read them while we are finishing the video notes.
What is Chivalry? • Dictionary Definition-- • ideal qualifications of a knight, including courtesy, generosity, bravery, and fighting skill • the rules and customs of medieval knighthood. • Treating women with dignity and respect
Your homework—two options • For the gentlemen… • For the ladies… • Option 2—If either side does not want to do the paragraph required, you may submit a 3-5 page paper on the history of Chivalry.
How did chivalry look in practice? • During the Crusades, Knights and Lords adopted this “code” partly to help them beat the “infidels” • 13th Century conventions of chivalry • men should honor and serve ladies • After the Crusades, knights continued to show their prowess and skills in medieval tournaments. • The Joust—what is a joust?
The training of a knight Training of a knight • Page • running errands, learning good manners, reading, writing, numbers, singing, dancing, strumming the lute, etc • Squire • He looked after his master's horses, polished his weapons and armor, carried the knight’s weapons in battle • Knighthood
So what were the Crusades?Recap from the video… • There were a total of 8 Crusades fought against Muslims • Aimed to “Restore the Holy Land” • The church and the knights believed they were “Just wars” • some Christians who made pilgrimages to the Holy Land were being persecuted
The Medieval Romance • A tale of High Adventure. Can be a religious crusade, a conquest for the knight's liege lord, or the rescue of a captive lady or any combination. *idealizes chivalry * Idealizes the hero and his deeds * Emphasizes the knight's love for his lady. * Features imaginary settings and the SUPERNATURAL
Collect and read “Chivalry” readings Pass in your homework
Differences between Epic heroes and “Romantic” knights • Epic hero more “self serving” • Think of Beowulf here…what was he interested in? • Romantic hero—more inclined to serve others • Is innocent and pure of purpose • Has a sense of honor based not on society's rules but on some better principle • Quests for some higher truth contained by the natural world
Characteristics of King Arthur 1. His birth is mysterious 2. He is raised in someone else’s home. He doesn’t know who his real parents are 3. For a time his true identity is unknown 4. After meeting an extraordinary challenge, he claims his crown 5. His triumph benefits his nation or group.
King Arthur • There were many different versions of this legend • Why did it begin? • Basic family tree • Parents—UtherPendragon and Lady Ingraine • Wife—Guinevere • His mentor: the wizard Merlin • His sword: Excalibur • How did he get it? • Other aspects of the legend?
The Round Table • it has no head, implying that everyone who sits there has equal status • one chair - the Siège Perilous ('danger-seat') – • The person who sat there was the knight destined to achieve the Holy Grail • The legends say there were 150 seats at the table
Lancelot greatest of King Arthur's legendary knights A great fighter who is very chivalrous and loyal to King Arthur Falls in love with Arthur’s wife Guinevere Lancelot and Guinevere commit adultery in the woods
The Holy Grail • The Holy Grail was a vessel used by Christ at the Last Supper • The knights believed that it had special powers • They believed it could restore order in difficult times • Relation to the Crusades? • Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade
Why did people like the Arthur legends? • Norman invasion—also why they enjoyed Robin Hood • Feudal system and the feudal aristocracy • government by a privileged minority or upper class, usually of inherited wealth and social position • During World War II, many British people looked back at the King Arthur legends for inspiration
Review the following worksheets 3 Arthur Readings Day of Destiny sheets Anyone who has not submitted these sheets by this point will keep his zero.
The Film Excalibur • What you are going to see… • Scene from when Merlin takes Arthur to raise him • You will also see how Arthur becomes king
3 Arthur Readings Distribute worksheets Audio recordings on the wikispace Do the sheet as we read
King Arthur Bio http://www.hulu.com/watch/186107/biography-king-arthur-his-life-and-legends