PEACE OFFICERS’ A ASSOCIATION OF GEORGIA GEORGIA LAW ENFORCEMENT COMMAND COLLEGE ANNUAL TRAINING MAY 29th 2013 “Future Issues in Public Safety” John B. Edwards
What do we know and how good a job do we do selling it ? “ We measure what is reasonable on the part of the Police by looking at what they know” ---- Paula K. Smith, Georgia V. Randolph 547 US 2006
THE FUTURE ISSUES IN PUBLIC SAFETY Require specific resources that are available as soon as possible to mitigate or eliminate risk of an adverse or unintended consequences • Learn/Innovate • Collaborations and partnerships • Change/Adapt • Analyze/Evaluate • Manage/Lead
Modern forces at work upon 21st Century Policing Social Technological Economic Political
Todays Issues in Police work THE POLITICAL BASKET WE LIVE • Budget • Perceptions • Adaptability • Performance • Results • Accountability
The Future Issues Basket • Technological infrastructure (Radio and computer) • Vehicles (How they are used or limited) • The cost comparison and utility of video versus police officer • Community Corrections nexus with Police
The Future Issues Basket • Increased Foreign Diversity and“ The Melting pot versus Salad the Bowl” development in our Communities • Additional non-traditional roles and responsibilities • Non sworn or volunteer alternatives (Police Community Support Officers PCSO’s) London, Jacksonville, Orlando
The Future Issues Basket • Evolution of Human Resource Issues and Conditions • The efficiency and effectiveness of our communication abilities (To stay in tune and real-time with the method and manner people obtain information) • The ability to work in partnerships with other government agencies, the private sector, community groups and citizens in collaborative efforts
Developing Credible Means to Measure Performance For years capturing our performance has been limited and narrowly tailored by our reporting to the FBI UCR’s and our calls and reports filed in our internal records management systems ----Dr. Michael Scott POP UW Policing in 2022 /COPS
How do we Measure our Economy?“The Composite Index of Leading Economic Indicators” • Work hours and unemployment rates • Manufacturing and consumption • Construction • Stock Prices and Bond Rates • Credit and Interest Rates • Consumer Expectations and Sales
Measuring Public Health • Prevalence and Transmission of Disease • Injuries, Premature Fatalities, Infant Mortality and Longevity • Exposure to Toxins • Access to Medical Care, Diet and Physical Activity • Environmental Issues and Concerns
Measuring the Weather • Temperature • Humidity • Air Pressure • Wind Speed and Direction • Precipitation • Clouds • Jet Stream
How can Policing be Measured more Effectively • Our Effectives and Efficiency in Achieving our Objectives and our Fairness in Achieving them • Measures of Crime that go Un-reported • Crime and Disorder Prevented • Order Maintenance Affects • Public Health Records (Intentional Injury) • Information from Insurance Industry Claims as a result of Criminal Conduct • Non-criminal complaints regarding disorder and unsafe conditions • Citizen / Stakeholder Surveys • Information regarding Prosecution and Conviction • Complaints, Suits filed or lack thereof
BJA Top 10 Future problem areas 1.) Possessing an analytic capacity 2.) Gun Violence 3.) Information Sharing 4.) Personnel Issues (The millenniums’, young different values based cultures and loss of experienced people with specific expertise)
Problems continued 5.) Social Media (Its use and impact) 6.) Southwest Border Violence 7.) Prison downscaling and Closing 8.) Out sourcing Police operations and business
Problems continued 9.) Prescription Drug abuse and medical marijuana 10.) Police legitimacy issues regarding the use of force Honorable mention was computer crimes and identity theft
21st Century policing • Budget cuts and fiscal constraints • Demand for accountability and fugal use of resources • Political and Legal liability issues • Dynamic social change through technologies
21st Century Government “Budgets will drive all policy debates, you will not have the luxury to say “no were not going to change anything”, because the budget will demand the change. Now the question becomes… how do you manage it ? Douglas Holtz-Eakin, Former Director Congressional Budget Office 2011
Operations Progression Late 20th Century Idea Program/Project components and nomenclature Cost Early 21st Century Cost What will the budget allow you to do (Not what you want, but what you can afford)
Institutional, Cultural and Economic Drivers that Create Challenges • Effective Leadership • Human Resources • Application, use and management of technologies • Communications (internal and external) • Collaborations and partnerships • Prioritization and delivery of police service
Organizational Challenges • Civilianization or contract employees • Downsizing • Consolidation • Regionalization • Shared services
Operational Demands • Reduced Crime • Reduced Cost • Less Resource inventory • Equipment and maintenance problems • More Responsibilities • Multitasking “Bottom Line…Do More With Less”
Operational Challenges • Patrol • Investigations • Specialized units • Community Corrections • Mental Health • Ordinance and Code Enforcement
Personnel Demands • New Generation Officers and Technology Innovations: Drivers of Change in Policing • Managing Drivers of Change in a Multigenerational Workforce • Recruiting, staffing, competency and training • People skills and the ability to critically think • Leadership • Safety and wellness
Personnel Challenges • Reduction in force • Furloughs, shift changes and overtime reduction or elimination • No COLA or pay incentives • Secondary employment issues • Pension reform • Health care
SO WHAT SHOULD BE IN OUR PLAN ? • Sustain our leadership • Manage our Agency or Unit • Grow and develop our people • Build our Reputation • Enhance our Image • Garner, develop and build Public Trust and Support • Network Key Stakeholders • Document performance and results
Are we Organizationally Competent • Does everyone do their jobs ? • Are people held accountable ? • Do we sustain a professional culture through zero-tolerance of poor conduct and behavior ? • Do we train, mentor and adapt to change well ? • Do we constantly measure and evaluate our performance and results ? • Are we a learning organization ?
Are we Organizationally Competent Continued • Do we focus upon our people as our most important resource? • Do we place a high Value upon providing competent and effective leaders? • Do we have a zero-tolerance for a Culture of Mediocracy? • Do we cast vision, sale and empower ? • Do we foster desire?
Officer Safety and wellbeing can broadly be defined under four categories • Leadership and Management • Operational and Emergency Responses • Training • Mental and Physical Health Wellness
All have a huge impact on the agency • Competence and job Performance • Image • Morale • Stress • Reputation Our most valuable resource is our people and good leadership influences that resource more than anything else…
Academic Studies in 74,91,98,99,2002,04,05,07 “The primary stressors for police officers are not the external pressures or dangers of the job, but rather are exerted internally from within the organization and administration”
Stinchcomb 2004 “ Stress occurs when demands are placed upon an individual that exceeds that individuals capacity to deal with them, and that stress intensifies when the individual lacks the means to avoid, alter or control those demands”
Research Suggests “Work in a bureaucratic police agency is often frustrating and stressful due to the perceptions by officers that the agency is self-serving and unresponsive…the less control employees have over what they are expected to do and the outcome of their efforts, the more likely they are to experience significant stress”
Research Suggests “In law enforcement organizations officers are confronted with an unsupportive management system that cause them to experience stress due To a lack of control, and the less control an officer has over a situation the more stressful it will be”.
Davey, Orbst and Sheehan 2001 Officers cited organizational stressors to be more severe than operational stressors, primary because they cannot control them.
Problems with stress in Police Citizen encounters “Stress causes irritability” that can result in… • Bad attitude • Negativity • Unnecessary conflict • Poor decision making • Being Prone to act out of anger
Stress Officers may respond with inappropriate aggression to the slightest provocation by misjudging the magnitude of the perceived threat or event.
Wright and Cropanzano 2000 Many Police leaders continue to view officer stress as an occupational health and safety issue rather than an exigent concern that is central to the management practices of the organization.
Kelling and Pate 1975 “While there seems to be concerned over how the police behave, there is little concern as to how the police feel as a result of there assigned role, and as to how these feelings correlate with behavior and with emotional and physical well being.”
In Summary Many studies results indicate that officer perception of stress induced by the traditional organization could be reduced by leaders adapting and implementing employee participative management practices Managers have to invest by training and mentorship to develop our peoples skill sets and provide supervision in a “situational” leadership Context… “You can either prepare or repair” Dr. John Maxwell
THE KEYS FOR 21st Century LEADERS • Continuously cast vision and explain “why” we do like we do…”teach” • Communicate specific expectations to employees • Define and promote consequence thinking for employees • Promote and develop the critical thinking skills of employees
THE KEYS FOR 21st Century LEADERS • Promote the use of good people skills by employees • Remain emphatic toward employees, maintain social awareness and self-awareness • Foster Desire from employees • Give Ownership to employees
Modern and future 12 “High Risk” Areas for Liability in Police work How many of the 12 start with the Officer, their mental state, behavior and conduct ? Further, how many could be mitigated through bottom up Policy formulation, training regarding the policy and supervision to insure policy is followed ? How would exemplary leadership and mentorship affect these 12 ?
TOP 12 “High Risk" Liabilities Areas • Use of Force • Pursuit and Emergency Vehicle Operations • Arrest, Search and Seizure • Arrest Care, Custody and Control of Prisoners • Domestic Violence • Property and Evidence • Off-Duty Conduct
Top 12 “High Risk” areas continued • Sexual Harassment / Misconduct • Selection, Hiring and retaining • Internal Investigations • Special Operations • Dealing with the Mentally Ill or Emotionally Disturbed People
THERE IS AN ABSOLUTE DEMAND FOR LEADERSHIP TRAINING BEFORE THEY LEAD Do Not Subject Employees to Trial and Error Management Such has a tremendous affect upon… • Personnel • Administration • Operations • Productivity • Risk • Reputation and Image
Schafer 2010 Findings – Ratings suggest respondents saw effective and ineffective leaders as expressing nearly opposite sets of traits and habits. Efficacy was most strongly linked with integrity, work ethic, communication, and care for personnel; ineffective leaders were characterized as failing to express these traits. Respondents cast leadership development as a process best-achieved through a mixture of training/education, experience, and feedback. Surprisingly, the most highly-rated barriers to the expansion of effective leaders and leadership practices were not fiscal, but cultural, structural, and political.
Don’t forgot how dangerous Police work has become and will be in our future… “The most dangerous thing we do is drive” Not to forget about the dangerous humans we encounter…
To not evolve or Change can cause complete failure • Silo mentalities • No sharing of information • Competing influences • Trapped in the paradigm of “routine” • Reactive mentality versus proactive thought process • Satisfaction with status quo