APA Style…light!APA Citation 6th ed. for COM 115 A Guide to Style and Citations for the 6th Edition By Sarah Viehmann, Writing Center Consultant & Megan Knight, Writing Center Consultant Edited & Presented by Michael Frizell, Writing Center Director Original presentation created by Laura Burrows, former Writing Center Consultant
APA 6th Edition • About $30 • MAJOR CHANGES • new ethics guidance • new journal article reporting standards • simplified heading style • updated guidelines for reducing bias • new guidelines for reporting inferential statistics • significantly revised table of statistical abbreviations • new instruction on using supplemental files • expanded content on the electronic presentation of data • expanded discussion of electronic sources emphasizing the role of the digital object identifier (DOI) • expanded discussion of the publication process
APA Title Page • Running head • Now included in the header • NOTE: This means that the Running head appears on EVERY PAGE OF THE PAPER! • Type “Running head” • a colon • then an abbreviated version of the • title in all caps • No more than 50 characters, spaces • included • Title • Concise statement of main topic • Fully explanatory on its own • Author Name(s) • Omit titles (Dr., Professor) and degrees (PhD, EdD, MD, etc.) • Institutional Affiliation • If none, list city and state of residency • Author Note (if applicable)
COM 115 Title Page • Header • Right Justified • Appears on every page • Type a shortened version of the title • 5 spaces • page number • Running head: • Type “Running head:” • a colon • An abbreviated version of the title in all caps • No more than 50 characters, including spaces • Title of Paper • Concise statement of the main topic • Fully explanatory on its own • Author’s Name • Omit titles (Dr., Professor) and degrees (PhD, EdD, MD, etc.) • Institutional Affiliation • If none, list city of residence
Parenthetical Citations Vs.Oral Citation Speaking Example Dr. Bourhis says in his 2009 text, Civility in Public Discourse, a text in which he asserts… In 2009, Dr. John Bourhis published in Civility in Public Discourse, a text in which he asserts that…
Avoiding Plagiarism • Plagiarism is… • …using someone else’s words or ideas as though they were your own. • …deliberately stealing someone’s work. • …paying someone to write a paper. • …a serious offense.
Common Knowledge vs.Unique Ideas Don’t need to cite: • Ideas widely believed to be true. • Folklore, stories, songs, or saying without an author but commonly known. • Quotations widely known and used. • Information shared by most scholars in your discipline. • WHEN IN DOUBT… • CITE!
Standard APA Header Levels These have changed from the 5th edition! Level One is Centered, Bold, Uppercase and Lowercase Level Two is Flush Left, Bold, Uppercase and Lowercase Level Three is Indented, bold, lowercase paragraph heading ending with a period. The paragraph follows. Level Four is indented, bold, italicized, lowercase paragraph heading ending with a period.The paragraph follows. Level Five is indented, italicized, lowercase paragraph heading ending with a period.The paragraph follows. Good news! Now, you will follow the pattern of levels from the top down: if you have one level, use Level 1; if you have two levels, use Levels 1 and 2; and so on. American Psychological Association (2009). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association
Writing the Outline for Speeches • Single space the text of the outline • Double space between major sections • Retype the title on the first page of the outline (the 2nd page of your manuscript) • Specific Purpose: • Central Idea: • Desired Response: • Center the title of major sections EXAMPLE WRITING TIP: Outlines are written to be read!
The Outline for Speeches… EXAMPLE • Transitions are written as complete sentences • Contained in parentheses • Double spacing sets off transitions from the rest of the outline WRITING TIP (Public Speaking Tip, too!): Include a beginning, middle, and ending…easier to read, better speech!
When to Cite You DO need to cite: You DON’T need to cite: Your own unique ideas Common knowledge • When using someone else’s exact words • When using someone else’s data (statistics, etc.) • When using someone else’s figures (tables, graphs, images) • When stating someone’s unique idea PUBLIC SPEAKING TIP: Citing Sources Builds Speaker Credibility!
Reference List: Basics • Reference lists should be alphabetized by the • last name of the first authors listed. • Remember, you can not change the order of • authors within the study! • Nothing precedes something: • Green, E. C. (2000). • Greene, B. A. (1994). • Harrison, M. R. (2004). • Harrison, M. R., & Blake, C. D. (2001)
The DOI: Digital Object Identifier • The DOI is like a social security number for a source. It is meant to help readers find the exact source you are referencing. • You can type a DOI into Google and get the exact source. • All DOI numbers begin with a 10 and contain a prefix and a suffix separated by a slash. • Not all sources have DOIs. • If the source has a DOI, cite it after the rest of the citation is finished: • Brownlie, D. Toward effective poster presentations: An annotated bibliography. European Journal of Marketing, 41(11/12), 1245-1283. doi:10.1108/03090560710821161
Common Reference Entries • Book • Gravetter, F. J., & Forzano, L. B. (2005). Research methods for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Thomson. • Book with editor • Plath, S. (2000). The unabridged journals (K. V. Kukil, Ed.). New York: Anchor. • Journal paginated by volume • Risko, E. F., Stolz, J. A., & Besner, D. (2005). Basic processes in reading: Is visual word recognition obligatory? Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 12, 119-124. • With DOI: Same format, but after page number: doi:10.1037/0278-6220.127.116.11 • Journal paginated by issue • Schmidt, J. R., & Cheesman, J. (2005). Dissociating stimulus-stimulus and response-response effects in the Stroop task. Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology,59(2), 132-138.
Journal Pagination: Volume or Issue? Paginated by volume Paginated by issue Journals whose issues each begin on page one require the issue number in the reference page to specify the issue in which an article appears: Volume 23, issue 1: page 1-205 Volume 23, issue 2: page 1-300 [An article listed in volume 23, page 189, would not tell a reader which issue contained the article] Some journals begin each issue where the last left off: • Volume 1, issue 1: page 1-200 • Volume 1, issue 2: page 201-400 • These journals are paginated by volume, and do not require the issue number in the reference citations
Online References • Article From an Online Periodical Stroop, J. R. (1935). Studies of interference in serial visual reactions [Electronic version]. Journal of Experimental Psychology,121(1), 15-23. • (Note: if there is no print version available, include date of access and URL after the issue: Retrieved July 5, 2005, from http://www... Use the exact URL of the article if possible, unless you have retrieved an article from a newspaper’s site (i.e., www.newyorktimes.com) • Article from a Database Holliday, R. E., & Hayes, B. K. (2001, January). Dissociating automatic and intentional processes in children’s eyewitness memory. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology,75(1), 1-5. Retrieved February 21, 2001, from Expanded Academic ASAP database (A59317927). • Non-Periodical Web Document • List as many as possible of the following: • Author’s name. Date of publication (use “n.d.” if no date is known or available). Title of the document in italics. Date of access. URL directly to the source • Chovil, I. (n.d.). What is schizophrenia? Retrieved November 6, 2005, from http://www.chovil.com/first.html • Keep them in this order! • If there is no author, use the title as the author, followed by the date in parenthesis. When no DOI is included and the URL is given, a retrieved date is needed unless the source material may change over time (e.g., wikis)
Misc. References • Encyclopedia Entries • Glickman, H. (1994). Occupational safety and health administration (OSHA). In World book encyclopedia (Vol. 14, pp. 647-648). Chicago: World Book. • Occupational therapy. (1994). In World book encyclopedia (Vol. 14, p. 648). Chicago: World Book. • Newspaper Articles • Schwartz, J. (1993, September 30). Obesity affects economic, social status. The Washington Post, pp. A1, A4. A complete list of types of sources, cross-referenced to examples, can be found in the APA Publication Manual on pages 193-215.
Contact Information • Michael Frizell, Writing Center Director • email@example.com • Phone number 417-836-5006 • Office: Meyer Library 112 • Writing Center • First floor Meyer Library – The Bear Claw • Phone Number 417-836-6398 • http://writingcenter.missouristate.edu • Supplemental Instruction • http://si.missouristate.edu