Pre-reading Activities • What is “personal space”? • What is your personal space?
What is personal space? • Personal space is our “individual boundary or territory.” Moving into someone's personal space can be viewed as a violation. • Personal space is morepsychological than physical. It depends more on our inner space than the space outside us. • This space varies across individuals according to factors such as age, gender, personality, status, and culture.
4 Zones of Personal Space • Intimate distance: (0-18 inches ) between close friends, family members; show affection, give comfort or protect • Personal distance: (1/½-4 feet) most conversations • Social distance: (4-12 feet) less personal situations, in business, workplace • Public distance: (>12 feet) lectures, churches, public gatherings
Shared Space • Elevators, buses, theaters, and many other similar “shared places” tend to reduce personal space. People who routinely find themselves in such situations tend to have smaller personal space and more tolerance for “space invasion” than those who are unused to crowding.
We need personal space to feel comfortable
But there are always “Space Invaders”
Unit 2 Space Invaders By Richard Stengel
Richard Stengel, Managing Editor of Time magazine, and a long-time writer and editor of the magazine As a senior writer and essayist, Stengel has written for The New Yorker, The New Republic and The New York Times. He's been a frequent television commentator on CNN and MSNBC. Stengel has written several books, including January sun: One day, three lives; A South African town and You're too kind: A brief history of flattery. About the Author
Text Structure 3 Sections: • Paragraph 1-2 :This part tells us about the author's experience of how his personal space was invaded and how his individual border was intruded on. • Paragraph 3-7: This part shows that the phenomenon of invading personal space has become more and more serious in the current society. • Paragraph 8-9: The last two paragraphs show that the shrinking of personal space is less a physical matter than people's psychological withdrawal.
Part 1 (Paragraph 1-2) • The first two paragraphs tell us about the author's experience of how personal space was invaded and how his individual border was intruded on.
New words from the text • 1. minute adj • 1) very small in size or amount 极小的; 极少的: water containing minute quantities of lead2) very detailed; accurate or precise 极详细的; 准确的: a minute description, inquiry, examination, inspection, etc • >minutely adv.minutenessn [U].
2. sidle v [Ipr, Ip] to walk towards something or someone slowly and quietly, as if you do not want to be noticed.(偷偷地)侧身而行 • sidle up/towards/along: sidling up to the bar * She sidled over to me and asked if I recognized her.
3. scribble v[I, Tn] write (sth) very fast or carelessly 匆匆或草草书写（某内容）: scribbling (figures) on an envelope • > scribblen 潦草的笔迹; 乱画的无意义的东西
4.shufflev [I, Ipr, Ip] walk without lifting the feet completely clear of the ground 拖着脚步走: Walk properly don't shuffle. • shuffle指缓慢的﹑ 疲惫的步子, • shamble同样指拖着脚步走但可来得较快也较随便 • stagger身负重物的人或喝醉的人走起路;蹒跚 . • stumble因未见到地上的物体, 不留心用脚碰到;跌 跌撞撞地走 • waddle的词义很幽默, 指因肥胖或因负重走起路来一摇一摆像鸭子似的. • hobble和limp均指腿受伤时不平稳的步子. • limp专用以指单腿受伤或强直
5.hugger-muggeradj, adv 1) secret(ly) 秘密（的）. 2) confused(ly); in disorder 混乱（的）; 乱糟糟（的）.> hugger-muggern [U] 1 secrecy 秘密. 2 confusion 混乱.
6. Slinkyor "Lazy Spring" is a toy consisting of a helical spring that stretches and can bounce up and down. (“机灵鬼”，一种用软弹簧做成的会翻跟头的玩具) • slinky adj (esp of a woman) moving in a seductive way （尤指女子）扭捏招摇地移动: her slinky way of dancing • > slinkinessn [U].
7.quaintadj • unusual and attractive, especially in an old-fashioned way 离奇有趣的, 古怪的: quaint old customs • > quaintlyadv. quaintnessn [U].
8. ring n. • a quality, or an impression of having the quality that is mentioned 某种特质: The books he mentioned had a familiar ring about them.
9. gratifyingadj ~ (to do sth/that...) (fml) pleasing; satisfying 令人高兴的; 令人满意的: • E.g. It is gratifying to see one's efforts rewarded. • > gratifyv.使高兴，使满足 • gratificationn (fml) 喜悦; 满意
10. intuitiveadj • 1) an intuitive idea is based on a feeling rather than on knowledge or facts 直觉的: intuitive knowledge • 2) possessing intuition 有直觉力的: Are women more intuitive than men? • > intuitively adv intuition n. 直觉
11. penetratev 1) [Ipr, Tn] ~ (into/through) sth make a way into or through sth 进入或穿过某物: A shrill cry penetrated the silence. • 2) [Tn] understand or discover (sth) 洞察或发现（某事物）: It was impossible to penetrate the mystery. • > penetrating adj 思想敏锐的; 有洞察力的 penetration n.
Questions: • 1. How did the author describe the violation of personal space that happened in a bank? Why does the author tell his experience at the bank? • 2. Is "personal space" a phrase of the seventies? Is it out of date nowadays? Why or why not?
Part Two (paragraph 3-7) This part shows that the phenomenon of invading personal space has become more and more serious in the current society. The writer gives several explanations to this pervasive phenomenon.
12.wedgev pack or thrust (sth/sb/oneself) tightly into a space 将（某物[某人]）塞入或插入某空间: • E.g. I was so tightly wedged between two other passengers, I couldn't get off the bus. • > wedgen. 劈; 尖劈; 楔子
12. zigzagadj [attrib] (of a line, path, etc) turning right and left alternately at sharp angles （指线条﹑小径等）锯齿形的, Z字形的: a zigzag road, course, flash of lightning> zigzagn锯齿形的线条﹑小径等 zigzagv 曲折地前进
14. jostlev [I, Tn] ~ (against sb) push roughly against (sb), usu in a crowd 推﹑挤（某人）（通常於人群中）: The youths jostled (against) an old lady on the pavement.
15.carve out to succeed in getting the job, position, life etc that you want 靠勤奋创（业）或树（名声）: She carvedout a name for herself as a reporter. • >carve v. 雕刻; 雕刻成（某物）
16.fidgetyadj unable to stay still 烦躁的; 坐立不安的: The boys get fidgety if they can't play outside. • > fidgetv [I, Ipr] ~ (about) (with sth)烦躁不安 / n. 烦躁不安的人
17.relentlessadj strict, cruel, or determined, without ever stopping残酷的，不留情的: He was relentlessin demanding repayment of the debt. • > relentv [I] 决定采取较为温和的态度和做法: Afterwards she relented and let the children stay up late to watch TV.
18. Malthusian logic: Thomas Robert Malthus (1766 — 1834), British economist and clergyman. In Essay on Population (1798) he argued that without the practice of “moral restraint” the population tends to increase at a greater rate than its means of subsistence, unless war, famine, or disease intervenes or efforts are made to limit population.
19. proximityn [U] (fml) ~ (to sth) nearness in space or time; closeness （空间或时间上的）邻近, 接近: in the proximity of the building * houses built in close proximity to each other • > proximate a. 最接近的，直接的
20. alluringadj attractive; charming 吸引人的; 诱惑人的: an alluring smile, prospect, promise • > allurev [Tn] (fml or rhet) 诱惑﹑引诱或吸引（某人）/ n. 诱惑力; 魅力 • allurement n [C, U].
21.proliferationn • [U] proliferating or being proliferated （迅速的）繁殖; 增殖: [attrib] a nuclear non-proliferation treaty • > proliferatev. 繁殖, 使 ... 激增
22.infusev [Tn.pr] • ~ sth into sb/sth; ~ sb/sth with sth • put (a quality) into sb/sth; fill sb/sth with (a quality) 将…注入某人(物); 使某人(物)获得…: infuse new life, energy, etc into the workers • >infusionn [U] ~ of sth (into sb/sth)注入; 灌输
23. janglev [I &. T] 1) if metal objects jangle, or if you jangle them, they make a sound when they hit each other: (使某物）发出刺耳的金属撞击声: • 2) if your nerves jangle, or if something jangles your nerves, you feel nervous or upset: 发出噪声刺激（神经等）: Her voice jangles on my ears. • > janglen刺耳的声音 • janglinga. anxious
24. keep to oneself : remain private; avoid meeting other people 不交际 • E.g. She doesn’t go out much; she likes to keep to herself.
25. logisticsn [sing or pl v] organization of supplies and services, etc for any complex operation物流, 后勤学,统筹安排 • > logistic, logisticaladj.
26. wagerv [I, Tn] ~ sth (on sth) stake (money) on the result of (sth); bet sth 在（某事物）上赌（钱）; 打赌: I'll wager (you) (any money you like) he won't come. • > wagern 赌博
27. trespassv1) [I, Ipr] ~ (on sth) enter sb's land or property without his permission or other authority 非法侵入某人地界;侵占: • E.g. He accused me of trespassing on his estate. • (fig.) trespass on sb's time / privacy • > trespass n [U] 非法侵入 • trespasser n非法侵入的人
28.mutterv 1) ~ (sth) (to sb) (about sth) speak or say (sth) in a low voice that is hard to hear 低语; 咕哝（某事）: • He muttered to the salesgirl about losing his wallet. • 2) [I, Ipr] ~ (about/against/at sb/sth) complain or grumble privately or in a way that is not openly expressed （私下）埋怨, 发牢骚 • > muttern 含糊低语声 • mutterern喃喃低语者.mutteringn [U] (also mutterings [pl]) 私下的抱怨.
29. lamentv • 1) [I, Ipr, Tn] ~ (for/over sb/sth) feel or express great sorrow or regret for (sb/sth) 为…感到悲痛; 哀悼: lament (for) a dead friend *lament (over) one's misfortunes • 2) [I, Tn] complain (about sth) 抱怨（某事）> lament n 悲恸; 挽歌 • lamentationn 悲痛; 哀悼 • lamentableadj 惋惜的; 可悲的 • lamentedadj 悲叹的; 痛惜的
30. grantvagree to give or allow (what is asked for) 同意给予或允许（所求）: grant a favour, request, etc * She was granted a pension. • > grant n. 拨款，授予物
31.expansionist n. 扩张主义者,领土扩张论者 / adj.(关于)扩张主义的 • > expand v.扩大，扩张 expansionn. 扩大，扩张 • expanse n. ~ (of sth)广阔；宽阔的区域 expansive a. 广阔的；胸襟开阔的
32. Manifest Destiny • the belief that the US people had the right and the duty to take land in North America from other people, because this was God's plan. This phrase was used by journalists and politicians in the 19th century when US citizens moved west across North America and the US gained Texas, California, Oregon, and Alaska. 命定扩张论(19世纪为美帝国主义向外搞侵略和扩张辩解的反动史观), 天定命运论 • manifest a. 明白的; 明显的