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From Justinian to the Crusaders

From Justinian to the Crusaders

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From Justinian to the Crusaders

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Presentation Transcript

  1. From Justinian to the Crusaders

  2. New enemies (565 – 717) • Attacks of old and new enemies on the Byzantine Empire • Penetration into the inland Empire • Transformation of temporary plunders to permanent settlements • Institution of new states in the geographical area • Land -limitation of the Empire • Lingual, religious & cultural homogeneity

  3. New enemies (565 – 717) • Lombards Conquest of Italy & institution of the Lombard Kingdom • Limitation of the byzantine lands in Italy • Institution of the byzantine Exarchates of Ravenna & Africa (= administrative regions)

  4. New enemies (565 – 717) • Avars • Movement to the Northern Balkans, forced by other tribes • Temporary plunders of the Empire • Final settlement North of the Balkan Peninsular • Slavs • Movement with the Avars to the Northern Balkans, forced or by their own will • Settlement of their majority in the Northern Balkans • Invasions in the Empire, many times followed by peaceful settlement (“sklavinias”)  gradual assimilation in the following centuries

  5. New enemies (565 – 717) • Bulgarians • Movement to the Northern Balkans • Settlement & institution of the 1st Bulgarian State in the area between Danube & Hemus Mountain

  6. New enemies (565 – 717) • Persians • Constant invasions in the eastern part of the Empire • Conquest of Jerusalem & snatch of the Holy Cross (614 AD)  Victorious war against them and recapture of the most important Christian symbol by Heraclius • Siege of Constantinople by the Avars & Persians (626-7 AD) ( “AkathistosHymnos”)

  7. New enemies (565 – 717) • Arabs • Conquer of Persia & the former byzantine prefectures of Palestine, Syria &Egypt • Invasion in Northern Africa, Spain & Minor Asia • Evolution into also nautical force

  8. Period of Reorganization (717 – 867 AD) • Dynasty of the Isaurians • Victories against the Bulgarians & the Arabs (East: 717AD unsuccessful siege of Constantinople – West: 732AD Poitiers) – use of the “liquid fire” • War on Icons (726-843 AD)  social upheavals • Christianization of the Slavs in Moravia by Cyril & Method (9th century AD) • Glagolitic script • Christianization of the Bulgarians by Vardas (9th century AD) • Further cultural influence of the Byzantium on the christianized nations

  9. Period of Prosperity (867 – 1025) • Dynasty of the Macedonians • Increase of the Bulgarian threat during the reign of Simeon (dreamer of the Holy Roman Empire of the Bulgarian Nation) – Byzantine victory & annexation of the Bulgarian state to the Byzantine Empire • Attempt to confront the social inequality between the poor & the wealthy (“dynatoi”)  law of “Allilegion” • Enforcement of “themata”, in order to protect the eastern areas of the Empire • Christianization of the Russians (10th century AD) • Independency of the Byzantine Orthodox Church • Photius the Patriarch  1st Schism (9th century AD – “filioque”) // “Myriobiblos” or “Library”- “LexeonSynagogi”

  10. Period of Subversion (1025 – 1081) • Inefficient emperors • New enemies: • Hungarians, Pechenegs & Cumans in the Northern Balkans • Seljuk Turks in Minor Asia (1071 Byzantine defeat in Manzikert ) • Normans in Italy • Final Schism (1054 Michael Cerularius )  Beginning of hatred between western & eastern Christian Churches

  11. Last “dazzling” (1081 – 1204) • Dynasty of the Comnenians • Temporary invasion of the Normans in Epirus & West Macedonia • Regain of independence for the Bulgarians (1187AD) • Byzantine defeat in the battle of Myriokephalon by the Seljuk Turks • Byzantium loses its former prestige (Byzantine Emperor  “Rex Graecorum”)

  12. Last “dazzling” (1081 – 1204)

  13. Last “dazzling” (1081 – 1204) • 1st Crusade (1096-1099 AD) • Agreement between the Byzantines & the Crusaders about the supplies of the army & the conquered areas • Re-conquest of West Minor Asia

  14. Last “dazzling” (1081 – 1204) • 3rd Crusade (1189-1192) Conquest of Cyprus by the British crusaders ( Richard the Lionhearted) • 4th Crusade (1201-1204) (Boniface of Montferrat) • Change of the first plan, in order to help Alexius 3rd Angel to regain the byzantine throne

  15. Last “dazzling” (1081 – 1204) • Conquest of Constantinople by the crusaders • The city is conquered for the 1st time in its history. • The Crusaders plundered the city for 4 constant days & nights  Many works of art were ruined or transferred to the West. • Only two Byzantine- Greek states remainin the place of the former Byzantine Empire: • Despotate of Epirus • Empire of Nicaea

  16. Last “dazzling” (1081 – 1204)