Used primarily forexternal reporting. Used primarily bymanagement. The Contribution Format
Contribution-Margin Ratio • Sales revenue, variable expenses and contribution for Micro Wave can be expressed as a percentage of sales
Break-even point in units sold Fixed expenses Unit contribution margin = Contribution Margin Method to Determine Break-even The contribution margin method is a variation of the equation method. Break-even point in total sales dollars Fixed expenses CM ratio =
Total Sales Total Expenses Fixed expenses CVP Graph Dollars Units
Break-even point CVP Graph Profit Area Dollars Loss Area Units
Break-even Reduction • Micro is currently selling 500 ovens per month. Break-even units are 400 per month under the current cost structure. • What would be the break-even units if fixed costs decrease to $70,000? • What would be the break-even units if variable costs were reduced to $250? • What would be the break-even units if selling price was increased to $513.33?
Target Operating Profit - CM Approach Original contribution margin formula: Break Even Point in Units = Fixed Expenses Contribution Margin per Unit Target operating profit modification: Units Sold to Earn Target Profit = Fixed Expenses +Target Op. Profit Unit Contribution Margin
Or Net income (1 – Tax rate) Operating profit = After-Tax Profit Targets Net income = Operating profit – Income taxes = Operating profit – (Tax rate x Operating profit) = Operating profit (1 – Tax rate)
After-Tax Profit Targets Fisher Company has a selling price of $40 for its only product. Variable cost per unit is $24, and fixed costs are $800,000 for the year. The Company wants to achieve an annual net income (after taxes) of $487,500. How many units must it sell if its income tax rate is 35 percent.
Sensitivity Analysis – Fixed Costs • Micro Wave Co. is currently selling 500 ovens per month • The sales manager believes that an increase of $10,000 in the monthly advertising budget would increase sales of ovens to 540 per month • Should the increase in advertising be made?
Change in Variable Costs and Sales Volume • Micro Wave management is contemplating the use of higher-quality components, which would increase variable costs by $15 per oven. However, the sales manager predicts that the overall higher quality would increase sales to 600 ovens per month. Should the higher quality components be used?
Change in Fixed Cost, Sales Price, and Sales Volume • To increase sales, the sales manager would like to cut the selling price by $40 per oven and increase the advertising budget by $30,000 per month. The sales manager believes that if these two steps are taken, unit sales will increase by 60% to 800 ovens per month. Should the changes be made?
Change in Variable Cost, Fixed Cost, and Sales Volume • The sales manager would like to place the sales staff on commission basis of $40 per oven sold, rather than on flat salaries that now total $10,000 per month. The sales manager is confident that the change will increase monthly sales by 15% to 575 ovens per month. Should the change be made?
Change in Regular Sales Price • The company has an opportunity to make a bulk sale of 200 ovens to a wholesaler if an acceptable price can be worked out. This sale would not have any effect on the company’s regular sales. What price per oven should be quoted to the wholesaler if Micro wants to increase its Operating profits by $5,000?
The Margin of Safety Excess of budgeted (or actual) sales over the break-even volume of sales. The amount by which sales can drop before losses begin to be incurred. Margin of safety = Total sales - Break-even sales Let’s calculate the margin of safety for Micro
The Margin of Safety Micro has a break-even point of $200,000. If actual sales are $250,000, the margin of safety is $50,000 or 100 ovens.
The Margin of Safety The margin of safety can be expressed as 20%of sales.($50,000 ÷ $250,000)
Definition of Operating Leverage • The relative mix of a firm’s fixed and variable costs determines its operating leverage. • At a given level of sales: Degree of operating = Contribution Margin • leverage Operating Income • The higher a firm’s fixed cost as compared to its variable cost, the greater its operating leverage. • Operating leverage acts like a multiplier. The greater the operating leverage, the greater the change in operating income for a given change in sales. • Let’s calculate the operating leverage for each firm.
Application of Operating Leverage • At a given level of sales, the operating leverage is a measure of how a given percentage change in sales will affect operating profits. • In fact, the operating profit will increase by the operating leverage times the percentage change in sales. • For a 10% increase in sales , Firm Alpha’s operating income increased 40% (4 times 10%). • For a 10% increase in sales , Firm Beta’s operating income increased 50% (5 times 10%). • For a 10% increase in sales , Firm Gamma’s operating income increased 60% (6 times 10%).
Break-even Analysis (in Units) with Multiple Products Curl Company provides us with the following information: Fixed cost is $120,000. What is the break-even point in units? What are the sales of Surfboards and Sailboards at the break-even point?
Break-even Analysis (in Sales Dollars) with Multiple Products Curl’s Contribution Margin income statement is shown below: $150,000 $450,000 = 33.3% What is the break-even point in Sales? What are the sales of Surfboards and Sailboards at the break-even point?