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# Binary Search Trees

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1. Binary Search Trees • If we want to perform a large number of searches in a particular list of items, it can be worthwhile to arrange these items in a binary search tree to facilitate the subsequent searches. • A binary search tree is a binary tree in which each child of a vertex is designated as a right or left child, and each vertex is labeled with a key, which is one of the items. • When we construct the tree, vertices are assigned keys so that the key of a vertex is both larger than the keys of all vertices in its left subtree and smaller than the keys of all vertices in its right subtree. Applied Discrete Mathematics Week 14: Trees

2. Binary Search Trees • Example: Construct a binary search tree for the strings math, computer, power, north, zoo, dentist, book. math Applied Discrete Mathematics Week 14: Trees

3. Binary Search Trees • Example: Construct a binary search tree for the strings math, computer, power, north, zoo, dentist, book. math computer Applied Discrete Mathematics Week 14: Trees

4. Binary Search Trees • Example: Construct a binary search tree for the strings math, computer, power, north, zoo, dentist, book. math power computer Applied Discrete Mathematics Week 14: Trees

5. Binary Search Trees • Example: Construct a binary search tree for the strings math, computer, power, north, zoo, dentist, book. math power computer north Applied Discrete Mathematics Week 14: Trees

6. Binary Search Trees • Example: Construct a binary search tree for the strings math, computer, power, north, zoo, dentist, book. math power computer north zoo Applied Discrete Mathematics Week 14: Trees

7. Binary Search Trees • Example: Construct a binary search tree for the strings math, computer, power, north, zoo, dentist, book. math power computer dentist north zoo Applied Discrete Mathematics Week 14: Trees

8. Binary Search Trees • Example: Construct a binary search tree for the strings math, computer, power, north, zoo, dentist, book. math power computer book dentist north zoo Applied Discrete Mathematics Week 14: Trees

9. Binary Search Trees • To perform a search in such a tree for an item x, we can start at the root and compare its key to x. If x is less than the key, we proceed to the left child of the current vertex, and if x is greater than the key, we proceed to the right one. • This procedure is repeated until we either found the item we were looking for, or we cannot proceed any further. • In a balanced tree representing a list of n items, search can be performed with a maximum of log(n + 1) steps (compare with binary search). Applied Discrete Mathematics Week 14: Trees

10. Spanning Trees • Definition: Let G be a simple graph. A spanning tree of G is a subgraph of G that is a tree containing every vertex of G. • Note: A spanning tree of G = (V, E) is a connected graph on V with a minimum number of edges (|V| - 1). • Example: Since winters in Boston can be very cold, six universities in the Boston area decide to build a tunnel system that connects their libraries. Applied Discrete Mathematics Week 14: Trees

11. Brandeis Harvard MIT BU Tufts UMass Spanning Trees • The complete graph including all possible tunnels: The spanning trees of this graph connect all libraries with a minimum number of tunnels. Applied Discrete Mathematics Week 14: Trees

12. Brandeis Harvard MIT BU Tufts UMass Spanning Trees • Example for a spanning tree: Since there are 6 libraries, 5 tunnels are sufficient to connect all of them. Applied Discrete Mathematics Week 14: Trees

13. Spanning Trees • Now imagine that you are in charge of the tunnel project. How can you determine a tunnel system of minimal cost that connects all libraries? • Definition: A minimum spanning tree in a connected weighted graph is a spanning tree that has the smallest possible sum of weights of its edges. • How can we find a minimum spanning tree? Applied Discrete Mathematics Week 14: Trees

14. Brandeis Harvard 7 8 4 MIT 2 5 9 3 3 6 9 Tufts 4 BU 6 4 5 4 UMass Spanning Trees • The complete graph with cost labels (in billion \$): The least expensive tunnel system costs \$20 billion. Applied Discrete Mathematics Week 14: Trees

15. Spanning Trees • Prim’s Algorithm: • Begin by choosing any edge with smallest weight and putting it into the spanning tree, • successively add to the tree edges of minimum weight that are incident to a vertex already in the tree and not forming a simple circuit with those edges already in the tree, • stop when (n – 1) edges have been added. Applied Discrete Mathematics Week 14: Trees

16. Spanning Trees • Kruskal’s Algorithm: • Kruskal’s algorithm is identical to Prim’s algorithm, except that it does not demand new edges to be incident to a vertex already in the tree. • Both algorithms are guaranteed to produce a minimum spanning tree of a connected weighted graph. Applied Discrete Mathematics Week 14: Trees

17. Backtracking in Decision Trees • A decision tree is a rooted tree in which each internal vertex corresponds to a decision, with a subtree at these vertices for each possible outcome of the decision. • Decision trees can be used to model problems in which a series of decisions leads to a solution (compare with the “counterfeit coin” and “binary search tree” examples). • The possible solutions of the problem correspond to the paths from the root to the leaves of the decision tree. Applied Discrete Mathematics Week 14: Trees

18. Backtracking in Decision Trees • There are problems that require us to perform an exhaustive search of all possible sequences of decisions in order to find the solution. • We can solve such problems by constructing the complete decision tree and then find a path from its root to a leaf that corresponds to a solution of the problem. • In many cases, the efficiency of this procedure can be dramatically increased by a technique called backtracking. Applied Discrete Mathematics Week 14: Trees

19. Backtracking in Decision Trees • Idea: Start at the root of the decision tree and move downwards, that is, make a sequence of decisions, until you either reach a solution or you enter a situation from where no solution can be reached by any further sequence of decisions. • In the latter case, backtrack to the parent of the current vertex and take a different path downwards from there. If all paths from this vertex have already been explored, backtrack to its parent. • Continue this procedure until you find a solution or establish that no solution exists (there are no more paths to try out). Applied Discrete Mathematics Week 14: Trees

20. x x x x x x x x x x x x Q Q x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x Backtracking in Decision Trees • Example: The n-queens problem • How can we place n queens on an nn chessboard so that no two queens can capture each other? A queen can move any number of squares horizontally, vertically, and diagonally. Here, the possible target squares of the queen Q are marked with an x. Applied Discrete Mathematics Week 14: Trees

21. Decision Trees • Let us consider the 4-queens problem. • Question: How many possible configurations of 44 chessboards containing 4 queens are there? • Answer: There are 16!/(12!4!) = (13141516)/(234) = 13754 = 1820 possible configurations. • Shall we simply try them out one by one until we encounter a solution? • No, it is generally useful to think about a search problem more carefully and discover constraints on the problem’s solutions. • Such constraints can dramatically speed up the search process. Applied Discrete Mathematics Week 14: Trees

22. Backtracking in Decision Trees • Obviously, in any solution of the 4-queens problem, there must be exactly one queen in each column of the board. • Therefore, we can describe the solution of this problem as a sequence of n decisions: • Decision 1: Place a queen in the first column. • … • Decision 4: Place a queen in the fourth column. • For the 4-queens problem, there are 44 = 256 different sequences. • While this is already an efficiency gain, we will now see how backtracking can further improve it. Applied Discrete Mathematics Week 14: Trees

23. Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Backtracking in Decision Trees empty board place 1st queen place 2nd queen place 3rd queen place 4th queen Applied Discrete Mathematics Week 14: Trees