Electronic Resource Management An Overview of Standards
Presenters • Mary Bailey, Serials & Electronic Resource Librarian, Kansas State University • Dalene Hawthorne, Head of Systems & Technical Services, ESU • Anne Liebst, Assistant Director for Technical Services, Washburn University
Agenda • Why are standards important? • Brief history of electronic resources • Electronic Resources Management Initiative • Managing License Information • Managing journal article versions • Open URL • COUNTER • SUSHI
Electronic Resource Management: An Overview of Standards Anne Liebst, Washburn University Tri-Conference 2007 April 10, 2007
Standards? Well, it’s a lot like… click here
What I really mean is… …standards are all over the place MARC Metadata XML Z39.50 RFID AACR2 OpenAccess (Just to name a few!)
And now we are being told to throw out the standards! Roy Tennant – “MARC must die” Library Journal; 10/15/2002, Vol. 127 Issue 17, p26 Roy Tennant – “Will RDA be DOA?” Library Journal; 03/15/2007, Vol. 132 Issue 4, p
But wait! Wiley just bought Blackwells CSA just bought ProQuest Springer is about to buy Taylor & Francis …and the list goes on and on
So standards become important for electronic materials: To standardize terminology and definitions, methods of data collection and methods of analyzing the data with the aim of comparing results and of aggregating results on a regional, national, or even international level.
So standards become important for electronic materials: For the electronic collection; the online catalog; the library’s web site; electronic document delivery; online reference services; user training on electronic services; and internet access. The main problem is how to count usage. And who sets the standards?
National Information Standards Organization (NISO) Non-profit association accredited by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). Identifies, develops, maintains, and publishes technical standards to manage information in our changing and ever-more digital environment. NISO standards apply both traditional and new technologies to the full range of information-related needs, including retrieval, re-purposing, storage, metadata, and preservation. Founded in 1939, incorporated in 1989. Represents U.S. in the International Standardization Organization (ISO).
Pre-Standards Research Helps NISO map the business and technology landscape where its standards must operate. A pre-standards workshop focused on Digital Rights Expression. An exploratory workgroup on RFID examined the need for standards to support use in the library and book industries.
Active Standards Development NISO charters groups to create standards and best practices. The Metasearch Initiative produced a guideline, two draft standards and a best practices document. The Standardized Usage Statistics Harvesting Initiative (SUSHI) will help librarians track usage of online content. A License Expression Working Group will develop a single standard for the exchange of license information between publishers and libraries. The Web Services and Practices Working Group will produce best practices and interoperability mechanisms documents.
Draft Standards in Trial Use Enable implementers to test the product. Collection Description Specification and the Information Retrieval Service Description Specification work together to make it easier to find and use resources from the hidden Web.
Standards Several Z39 Standards went to ballot; others earned approval from ANSI. Data Dictionary—Technical Metadata for Digital Still Images The OpenURL Framework for Context-Sensitive Services Bibliographic References Scientific and Technical Reports—Preparation, Presentation and Preservation Guidelines for the Construction, Format, and Management of Monolingual Controlled Vocabularies Information Services and Use: Metrics and Standards for Libraries and Information
Implementation Maintenance Agencies, like ALA, assist in the dissemination of standards and provide information on changes. All standards are reviewed on a regular basis at least five years after approval and revised as the information environment changes.
Example ANSI/NISO Z39.50 – 2003 Information Retrieval : Application Service Definition & Protocol Specification Abstract: This standard defines a client/server based service and protocol for Information Retrieval. It specifies procedures and formats for a client to search a database provided by a server, retrieve database records, and perform related information retrieval functions. The protocol addresses communication between information retrieval applications at the the client and server; it does not address interaction between the client and the end-user. Maintenance Agency: Library of Congress
In Development NISO Standardized Usage Statistics Harvesting Initiative (SUSHI) United Kingdom’s Counting Online Usage of Electronic Resources (COUNTER)
Brief History of E-Resources Dalene Hawthorne Head of Systems and Technical Services Emporia State University KLA Tri-Conference - April 10, 2007 Topeka, Kansas
Brief History Lesson • It all started with MARC in the mid-1960s • Led by the Library of Congress • Pilot project ended in 1967 • General distribution began in 1969 • Laid the foundation for resource sharing
Databases in the 1960s • First bibliographic databases were created at about the same time • Scientific and government information • Driven by concerns about scholarly communication • National Science Foundation’s Office of Science Information Service legally charged facilitating access • First Dialog database created in 1966
The ’70s and ’80s • WorldCat was introduced in 1971 by OCLC • First online catalogs were made available by the mid 1970s, but many libraries brought theirs up in the 1980s • CD-ROM technology changed databases in the mid 1980s • User friendly interfaces • Juke boxes and networks • Full-text • No per-search charges • License agreements • Online databases were still heavily in use, but searches were usually mediated by a librarian
The Web • The Web changed everything • User-friendly interfaces • Hypertext linking • Easily accessible from outside the library • Different types of resources • More full text • Search engines • Link resolvers • Statistics • Need for new standards
Electronic Resource Management Systems • Many electronic resources to manage • Until recently, there weren’t tools available • Libraries used home-grown databases, spreadsheets, file folders, e-mail file folders
MIT Libraries • Developed VERA in FileMaker Pro • Manages acquisitions metadata • Provides access to e-resources through system-generated lists and searching capabilities • Use SFX as their link resolver
Emporia State University • Serials Solutions A-Z List & MARC records • EBSCOHost EJS Registration Tracker • Databases stored in content management system developed by the university webmaster • License Review • Creating bibliographic records • Scanning licenses into Millennium Media and linking to bib records • Limiting access by creating a passworded electronic reserve course • Planning for an ERM system • Implementing Innovative’s WebBridge OpenURL link resolver
Kansas State University • K-State currently uses a homegrown databases • Purchased Verde and plan to implement
Electronic Resource Management Initiative – Phase I • Digital Library Federation (DLF)Electronic Resource Management Initiative began fall 2002 and produced • Functional Requirements • Workflow Diagrams • Data Dictionary • Entity Relationship Diagram • Data Structure • Final Report – June 2005
Electronic Resource Management Initiative – Phase II • Data Standards • License Expression • Usage Data • Training in License Term Mapping
Managing Licensing Information Mary Bailey Serials & Electronic Resource Librarian Kansas State University Libraries KLA Tri-Conference - April 10, 2007 Topeka, Kansas
DLF ERM Initiative Report • August 2004 • Project to develop common specifications and tools for management of license agreements • http://www.diglib.org/pubs/dlf102/