Theories on Development Chapter 6 Pages 191-233
Emotional Development Attachment Theory Looks at the close social and emotional bond that develops between an infant and the care givers/parents (attachment) At around 6-8months babies show a strong preference for their mother and if they are separated from them then they show signs of separation anxiety. (emotional distress experienced when the infant is separated from who they have formed a bond with)
Harlow and Rhesus Monkeys. Why do babies form an attachment to their mothers? Harlow believed it was because she was the one that feeds them. He decided to investigate on Rhesus monkeys. He found that his “feeding hypothesis was not supported” Monkeys preferred the cloth mother over the wire mother despite the wire mother providing the food. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CU9jKlNK1Qc&feature=related 3min http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OrNBEhzjg8I&feature=related 5min
John BowlbyAttachment theory John Bowlby provided a new approach. Believed that attachment had a strong biological basis. Infants are programmed to display certain behaviours such as smiling, clinging which leads to an affectionate protective adult response. Adults are hardwired to be attracted to this behaviour. Bowlby came up with an attachment process that occurs in infants
John Bowlby How infants attach to their carers over time. Each behaviour is shared with an adult response which makes the attachment stronger.
As a consequence of these strong bonds when a parent needs to leave the infant becomes distressed. This is known as separation anxiety. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Y6QtuU1L_A8 30sec • There are different phases of attachment according to Bowlby.
Bowlby’s Findings • Infants need to develop a secure dependence before launching out on their own explorations. • To grow up mentally healthy the infant should experience a warm, intimate and continuous relationship with his/her mother.
Mary Ainsworth • Wanted to look at • How does attachment occur? • Are there different types of attachment? • What are the long term effects of attachment?
1) How does attachment occur? It occurs gradually over time. As they become more attached then they show stronger signs of distress when the carer leaves. To study an infants reaction to being separated Ainsworth developed a technique called the Strange Situation. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QTsewNrHUHU 3min15
2) Different Types of attachment. • Secure attachment: most common type (65%). Care giver responds to the infant appropriately and consistently to ensure that the infant believes the mum will be available and responsive. • Resistant attachment:accounts for 10% of attachments. Babies anxious even when mum is around. Protest when she leaves and cant be comforted easily when she returns. Care give not consistent in responding to the infants needs. • Avoidant attachment: accounts for 25% of attachments. Babies seek little contact from mum and isn’t distressed when she leaves. Can be with the care giver of a stranger. Caregiver is usually inconsistent. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PPwAcOw2QZ8 6min
There are three things that cause these differences.. • Care giver factors. • Role played by the infant. • External factors (family circumstances) Page 198.
3) Effects of Attachment Deprivation • Impacts on emotional development, mental illness, depression and delinquency. • Can be short or long term. Impact of healthy Attachments. • Become more resilient, competent with high self esteem. • Experience more positive emotions • Advanced cognitive development • Healthier relationships in adulthood.
Cognitive Development: transitions in patterns of thinking including reasoning, remembering and problem solving. This is why children think differently from adults.
Jean Piaget • Piaget proposed a stage approach to children’s cognitive development. • He believed thought processes go through a series of changes across four different stages. At each stage thinking matures as the child comes to understand and utilise new information. Everyone goes through each stage however the rate may differ from one person to the next. STAGES: • Sensorimotor • Pre-operational • Concrete operational • Formal operational
Assimilation and Accommodation How infants come to an understanding of the world. Children create thinking frameworks (mental patterns also called schemas). These are the building blocks of intelligent behaviour that helps them understand the world around them. These frameworks (schemas) are developed via the process of assimilation and accommodation. Assimilation: taking in NEW information and incorporating it into our existing ideas. The world is fitted in to what the child already knows. Accommodation: altering your existing ideas (OLD) as a result of new information. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WAQur-Y_BJY 1min16 Using these two processes children move through the four stages of cognitive development.
Sensorimotor stage Object permanence http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lKZ9IPRKkkU Pre-operational stage: Conservation http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YtLEWVu815o Centration http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OXSI-D75r48 Egocentrism http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OinqFgsIbh0 Concrete operational stage Reversibility http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gA04ew6Oi9M Formal operational stage http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lw36PpYPPZM
Evaluating Piaget’s Work • There is lots of research to support his theory. • His theory has inspired many others • His theory has been applied to educational settings which has changed the way children are taught at school. He has provided valuable information about when to teach certain concepts and how to teach them.
Criticisms. • Underestimated children’s development. • Mixing across the stages. • The timing for each stage varies so children don’t always pass through each stage at a set age. • His observations were biased. • Small sample size (his own children) • Tests may have been culturally biased.
ERIKSONS 8 STAGE MODEL Erikson divided life into 8 psychosocial stages. Psychosocial stage: 8 stages in which the individuals major goal is to satisfy desires related to social needs. Each stage characterises a psychosocial crisis. Psychosocial Crisis: a challenge in each of Erikson’s stages that a person must deal with in order to develop positive traits in the future. If you do not handle the crisis then negative traits will appear.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CvAwAzlWHek&feature=related 4min http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=s59JvdL-lBA&feature=related 2min
Evaluating Erikson’s Theory • His theory shows how social situations stimulate personality development by dealing with challenges linked to certain periods of a person’s life. • His descriptions don’t explain the enormous personality differences that exist between people. • His concepts like trust and autonomy are hard to test. • His work has been very influential.
Bob’s wife is dying of cancer and the drug to help her costs $200,000. Bob cant afford this and no one will help him. Without the drug she will die. He breaks into the pharmacy and steals the drug. Should Bob have done this? Why/why not?
Moral Development Morals: A person's standards of behaviour or beliefs concerning what is and is not acceptable for them to do Moral development: the change in moral behaviour over time. Morality: the ability to distinguish right from wrong and to behave accordingly. Was what Bob did right or wrong??
Lawrence Kohlberg’s Stage Theory • Looks at how people acquire a sense of right and wrong. • Kohlberg’s theory is based on the idea that people progress through three levels of moral development. • Each level is divided in 2 stages. • Everybody needs to go through the 6 stages in order and no stage can be skipped over.
Kohlberg’s Levels Level 1:Pre-conventional Consists of stage 1 and 2. Concerned with the self. Judge morality by consequences. Level 2: Conventional Consists of stage 3 and 4. Moral reasoning determined by conformity. Level 3: Post-conventional Consists of stage 5 and 6. Decide on a personal set of ethics. Moral thinking is more flexible. Stage 5 reasoning is determined by careful consideration. Stage 6 reasoning is determined by principles that are abstract, emphasising equity and justice.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=O7pQJ0ptjk0 4min30 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xL3ADOS6XsY 5min30
Evaluating Kohlberg. • Supported by research • As children get older moral reasoning alters in a predicted direction. • First four stages have been found in other cultures. Concerns: • Most people never reach level6 • Some people may skip stages or go in reverse order. • Too biased towards males • Mixing of stages.
homework • Activities: 6.3 all 6.7 all 6.9 all 6.11 questions 1,2,3,4,6