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Child Development Theories PowerPoint Presentation
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Child Development Theories

Child Development Theories

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Child Development Theories

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  1. Child Development Theories

  2. Research has shown that early childhood may be the most important life stage for brain development. • A baby’s brain is about one quarter the size of an adults’. • Scientists have found that babies’ brains develop in response to stimulation. • Arouses senses such as sight, sound, touch, taste, and smell. • Babies who are stimulated develop more quickly and have a more secure self-image. Why is Childhood Crucial?

  3. What is a theory? • A theory should allow us to predict and explain human behavior • It should be stated in such a way that it can be shown to be false • It must be open to scientific investigation

  4. Although researches don’t always agree, scientific researchers have agreed upon the five following general rules. • Development is similar for each individual • Development builds upon earlier learning. • Development proceeds at an individual rate. • The different areas of development are interrelated. • Development is a lifelong process. Child Development Theorists

  5. Psychoanalytic Theories: • Freud’s Psychosexual Theory • Personality has 3 parts • There are 5 stages of psychosexual development • Oedipus complex allows child to identify with same-sex parent • Fixation is an unresolved conflict during a stage of development

  6. Freudian Stages Birth to 1½ yrs 1½ to 3 yrs 3 to 6 years 6 yrs to puberty Puberty onward Oral Stage Infant’s pleasure centers on mouth Anal Stage Child’s pleasure focuses on anus Phallic Stage Child’s pleasure focuses on genitals Latency Stage Child represses sexual interest and develops social and intellectual skills Genital Stage A time of sexual reawakening; source of sexual pleasure becomes someone outside of the family Figure 2.1

  7. Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory: • There are 8 stages of psychosocial development • Each has a unique developmental task • Developmental change occurs throughout life span • Key points of psychoanalytic theories: • Early experiences and family relationships are very important to development • Unconscious aspects of the mind are considered • Personality is best seen as a developmental process

  8. Erikson’s Eight Life-Span Stages Figure 2.2

  9. Cognitive theories: • Piaget’s cognitive developmental theory • Stresses conscious mental processes • Cognitive processes are influenced by biological maturation • Four stages of cognitive development in children • Assimilation and accommodation underlie how children understand the world, adapt to it, and organize their experiences

  10. Piaget’s Four Stages of Cognitive Development Sensorimotor Stage: The infant constructs an understanding of the world by coordinating sensory experiences with physical actions: progressing from reflexive, instinctual action at birth to the beginning of symbolic thought toward end of the stage. Birth to 2 years of age Preoperational Stage: The child begins to represent the world with words and images. These words and images reflect increased symbolic thinking and go beyond the connection of sensory information and physical action. 2 to 7 years of age Concrete Operational Stage: The child can now reason logically about concrete events and classify objects into different sets. 7 to 11 years of age 11–15 years of age through adulthood Formal Operational Stage The adolescent reasons in more abstract idealistic and logical ways. Figure 2.3

  11. Vygotsky’s sociocultural cognitive theory • Children actively construct their knowledge • Social interaction and culture guide cognitive development • Learning is based upon inventions of society • Knowledge is created through interactions with other people and objects in the culture • Less skilled persons learn from the more skilled • Information-processing theory • Compares computers to the human mind • Thinking is information processing

  12. Information-Processing Theory geography literature INPUT OUTPUT science Information is taken into brain Information is used as basis of behaviors and interactions history religion Information gets processed, analyzed, and stored until use math

  13. Bandura’s Social Cognitive Model Behavior Person (cognitive) Environment Figure 2.4

  14. Bandura’s Modeling/Imitation Child observes someone admired Child imitates behavior that seems rewarded

  15. Urie Bronfenbrenner’s ecological theory: • Environmental factors influence development • 5 environmental systems affect life-span development • Eclectic theoretical orientation: • Selects features from other theories • No one theory has all the answers • Each theory can make a contribution to understanding life-span development

  16. Political philosophy School system National customs Economic patterns School & classroom Family Community Chronosystem Peer group Religion & groups Medical institutions Social conditions Mass media Cultural values Exosystem Mesosystems Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Theory of Development Macrosystem Figure 2.5

  17. Observed correlation: as permissive parenting increases, children’s self-control decreases Permissive parenting causes Children’s lack of self-control Children’s lack of self-control causes Permissive parenting Permissive parenting Other factors, such as genetic tendencies, poverty, and sociohistorical circumstances cause and both Children’s lack of self-control Possible Explanations for Correlational Data Figure 2.9

  18. Group 1 Time playing video games: 2 hours each day More playful and sociable Group 2 Time playing video games: 6 hours each day More aggressive and antisocial

  19. Heredity • Blood type, eye color, and hair color • Environment • Children also learn attitudes and beliefs from their environments Other Influences on Development