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Chapter 11

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Chapter 11

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  1. Chapter 11 French Revolution

  2. Section 1 French Revolution Begins

  3. Background of Revolution French society which was based on inequalities France’s population – 27 million was divided into 3 estates

  4. First Estate Consisted of clergy 130,000 people Owned 10% of land Tax exempt Divided into two groups Higher clergy – shared interest of nobles Parish priests – poor commoners

  5. Second Estate Made up of nobility 350,000 people Owned 25 to 30% of land Held leading positions in government, military, courts, and higher church offices Tax exempt Wanted to expand power at expense of monarch

  6. Third Estate Commoners Made up majority of population Divided by differences in occupation, level of education, and wealth

  7. Peasants Largest group of 3rd estate Made up 75 to 80% of total population Owned 35 to 40% of land Serfdom did not exist Resented relics of feudalism Had to pay fees for use of village facilities

  8. Urban Workers Skilled craftspeople, Shopkeepers Angry – rise of prices was greater than increase of wages

  9. Bourgeoisie Middle class Made up 8% of population or 2.3 million Owned 20 to 25 % of land Included merchants, bankers, industrialists, and professional people (doctors, lawyers, writers) Unhappy with privileges of nobles

  10. Causes of Revolution Near collapse of government finances Bad harvests & slowdown in manufacturing led to food shortages, rising prices, and unemployment Number of poor increase to 1/3 of population Costly wars Court luxuries

  11. Estates General Called by King Louis XVI French Parliament Had not met since 1614 Versailles – May 5, 1789 Compromised of representative from each estate 1st & 2nd estates had 300 delegates each 3rd estate had 600 delegates

  12. King Louis XVI & Marie Antoinette

  13. Con’t Each estate got one vote 1st and 2nd Estate would outvote 3rd 3rd wanted each delegate to vote

  14. National Assembly Made up of Third Estate delegates Met to draft a new constitution for France Locked out of meeting place Moved to indoor tennis court Tennis Court Oath – continue to meet until constitution was written King promise to use force to break up meeting

  15. Storming of Bastille July 4, 1789 Armory and prison in Paris Symbolized unfairness of French society Attacked by commoners of Third Estate Dismantled prison brick by brick Saved National Assembly

  16. Bastille

  17. Great Fear Vast panic that spread throughout France in summer of 1789 Caused by revolutions that broke out in both cities and countryside of France Revolutions started bc of hatred of entire landholding system

  18. August 4, 1789 Meeting of National Assembly Voted on 2 laws Abolish right of landlords Abolish financial privileges of nobles and clergy

  19. Declaration of Rights of Man Adopted by the National Assembly Aug. 26, 1789 Inspired by American Dec. of Ind., Constitution, and English Bill of Rights Listed natural rights of man liberty, property, security, resistance to oppression.

  20. Dec. of Rights of Man con’t Proclaimed freedom and equal rights for all men Access to public office based on talent End to exemption from taxation All citizens have rights to participate in making of laws Affirmed freedom of speech and press Did not include women in these rights

  21. Bread Riots Oct. 5, 1789 Marched to Versailles Women met with King and forced him to accept the new decree Insisted king return to Paris to show support of National Assembly

  22. Church reforms National Assembly seized and sold church lands Created Civil Constitution of the Clergy bishops and priests would be elected and paid by the state As a result – Catholics became enemies of the revolution

  23. Constitution of 1791 Created by National Assembly Established limited monarchy Legislature would make the laws Only men 25 or older and paid specified amount in taxes could vote King Louis tried to flee France but was captured and forced to return

  24. War with Austria European monarch feared that the revolution would spread to their country Austria and Prussia wanted to use force to restore King Louis’s full power France suffered defeats throughout war

  25. Paris Commune Radical political groups Dissatisfied with defeat in war and economic shortages Led mob attack on royal palace and Legislative Assembly Forced Legislative Assembly to suspend the monarch Call for a National Convention

  26. National Convention Members would be chosen on basis of universal manhood suffrage (all adult males could vote) Decide on nation’s future form of government

  27. Sans-cullotes Means without briches – wore long pants instead of knee length pants Ordinary patriots without fine clothes Made up majority of Paris Commune Consisted of working class or poor Many were merchants and wealthy artisans

  28. Sans-cullotes

  29. Section 2 Radical Revolution and Reaction

  30. Georges Danton Minister of Justice of National Assembly Wanted revenge on those who helped the king and resisted popular will Arrested and massacred thousands who he considered guilty

  31. French Republic Created Sept. 21, 1792 Abolished monarch and created a republic Convention split over the fate of the king

  32. Jacobins Large network of political groups throughout France Consisted of Girondins and Mountains

  33. Girondins Represented the provinces – areas outside the city Feared radical mobs in Paris Favored keeping the king

  34. Mountain Represented the interests of radicals in city of Paris Convinced National Convention to execute King Louis XVI Jan. 21, 1793 – behead king on the guillotine Started a new crisis in France

  35. Guillotine

  36. Continued Crisis Commune pushed for more radical changes Some refused to accept radical reforms Execution of king outraged foreign monarchs Austria, Prussia, Spain, Portugal, Britain, and Dutch Republic allied together against France

  37. Committees of Public Safety Formed to defend France against foreign and domestic threats Special committee of 12 Took control from 1793 to 1794 Dominated by Georges Dantonthen by Maximilien Robespierre

  38. Reign of Terror Victims were those who opposed the sans-culottes Killed close to 40,000 Major form of execution was the guillotine 16,000 executed by guillotine – included Maria Antoinette (wife of King Louis)

  39. Lyon City used as an example by the Committee of Public of Safety 1,880 citizens were executed Guillotine was too slow – used grapeshot

  40. Nantes City where the most notorious acts of violence were used Victims were sunk in barges in the Loire River

  41. Victims of Reign of Terror Clergy – 15% of victims Rest were bourgeoisie and peasant classes

  42. French Revolutionary Army Formed by National Convention Defend France against foreign allies Over one million soldiers Pushed European allies across Rhine Conquered Austrian Netherlands Important step in creation of modern nationalism – had become a people’s war

  43. End of Terror French defeated foreign enemies Deputies executed Robespierre bc feared his tactics As a result revolutionary terror began to decrease

  44. Constitution of 1795 Created by National Assembly Established a national legislative assembly Consist of two chambers 750 members Chosen by electors – had to own property worth a certain amount

  45. Council of 500 Lower house Initiated legislation

  46. Council of Elders Accepted or rejected proposed laws

  47. Directory Council of 500 created a list of those eligible Council of Elders elected 5 from list 5 formed executive committee – called Directory Ruled from 1795-1799 Era of corruption

  48. Directory con’t Two groups developed in opposition to Directory Royalists – wanted to restore king Radicals – unhappy with moderate reforms

  49. Coup d’etat Overthrew the government in 1799 Led by Napoleon Bonaparte

  50. Section 3 Rise of Napoleon