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Russia 1848-1914

Russia 1848-1914

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Russia 1848-1914

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  1. Russia 1848-1914 The Bear

  2. Alexander II

  3. Alexander II(1855-1881) I. • Perhaps the most liberal ruler prior to 20th century • Russian conditions • 90 % Russians lived on farms • Serfdom still a problem • Uprisings • Poor production • Serfs bought/sold • Serve military 25 yr terms

  4. Emancipation Act (Edict) 1861 • Alexander II abolished Serfdom • Most Russians unaffected • Lived in Mirs (highly regulated communes) • Collective ownership • Zemstvos established in 1864 • Local assemblies • Step toward political participation • Lords, however, controlled Zemstvos

  5. Judicial system improved • Censorship relaxed (not removed) • Liberal education programs • Put on Gold Standard • Growth of Industry helped spread popularity of Marxism!

  6. Railroads and Industry • 1860-1880 RR built: 1,250 miles to 15,500 miles • Domestic manufacturing • Suburbs grew around Moscow and St Petersburg • Modern factory workers • Strengthen military: Expansion South & East

  7. Critics of Alexander II’s reign • Alexander became increasingly conservative (realism replaced romanticism) • Radical populist movement advocated utopian agrarian society • Intelligentsia and Nihilism grew • Alexander II assassinated in 1881

  8. Intelligentsia and Nihilism • Intelligentsia • Hostile group of intellectuals • Believed they should take over Russia • Nihilism • Intellectual philosophy • Science only is real • No spiritual ‘meaning’ to life • Said society should be torn down and rebuild

  9. Alexander III

  10. II. Alexander III (1881-1894) • Most reactionary czar of 19th century • Slogan: • Autocracy, Orthodoxy, Russification” • Encouraged anti-Semitism • Pogroms initiated: resulted in persecution of Jews • Zionism was Jewish reaction (Herzel led: Jewish home in Holy Land

  11. Count Witte oversaw Industrialization • Brought West Tech & built factories • Rise in Russian middle class (small #’s) • More railroads (35,000 miles by 1900) • Trans-Siberian Railway biggest rail line • Moscow to Vladivostok (5,000 miles) • By 1900 became 4th in steel industry (US, Germany, Britain, Russia) • ½ World’s petroleum supply

  12. Nicholas II

  13. Nicholas II (1894-1917) III. • Russo-Japanese War (1904-05) • Sphere of influence in Manchuria • Sought Korea • Japan moved to stop Russia expansionism • Japanese defeated Russians • Very Humiliating! • Russia turned away from Asia

  14. Revolution of 1905 • Poor economy • Russo-Jap war hurt • “Bloody Sunday” Jan 1905 • 200,000 worker/peasants march to Winter Palace • Czar not in town • Fires shot; many killed • General Strike and troop mutinies • Czar forced to make concessions

  15. Duma created • Assembly serving as advisory board to Czar • Freedom of speech, assembly, and press • Czar could veto • Revolutionaries politically divided • Unable to agree • Propertied classes benefit at expense of workers

  16. Brief mild economic recovery 1907-1914 • Peter Stolypin make reforms • Agrarian reforms • Broke down collective village ownership • Encouraged enterprising peasants • Post 1911, Nicholas II’s court dominated by Gregorii Rasputin • Caused doubt about Czar’s ability to rule