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Why is Lucy so excited?

She gets to meet her cousin Eleanor today!!!. Why is Lucy so excited?. Learning. Classical Conditioning. Ivan Pavlov Studied Digestion of Dogs. Dogs would salivate before they were given food (triggered by sounds, lights etc…) Dogs must have LEARNED to salivate. Click…. Pavlov, cont….

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Why is Lucy so excited?

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  1. She gets to meet her cousin Eleanor today!!! Why is Lucy so excited?

  2. Learning

  3. Classical Conditioning • Ivan Pavlov • Studied Digestion of Dogs. • Dogs would salivate before they were given food (triggered by sounds, lights etc…) • Dogs must have LEARNED to salivate. Click…

  4. Pavlov, cont… • This is passive learning (automatic…learner does NOT have to think). • First thing you need is a unconditional relationship. • Unconditional Stimulus (UCS)- something that elicits a natural, reflexive response. • Unconditional Response (UCR)- response to the UCS.

  5. Classical Conditioning • Next you find a neutral stimulus (something that by itself elicits no response). • You present the stimulus with the UCS a whole bunch of times.

  6. Classical Conditioning After a while, the body links neutral stimulus + UCS. Acquisition

  7. Classical Conditioning • We know learning takes places when the previously neutral stimulus elicits a response. • Neutral stimulus = conditioned stimulus (CS) • Unconditional response = conditioned response (CR).

  8. Classical Conditioning • We know learning exists because the CS is linked to the UCS. • This is called ACQUISITION. • Acquisition does not last forever. • The moment the CS is no longer associated with the UCS, we have EXTINCTION.

  9. My favorite Classical Conditioning Example See if you can identify the UCS, UCR, CS and CR. Classical Conditioning as portrayed in The Office.

  10. Spontaneous Recovery Sometimes, after extinction, the CR still randomly appears after the CS is presented.

  11. Generalization and Discrimination • Generalization • Discrimination Something is so similar to the CS that you get a CR. Something so different to the CS so you do not get a CR.

  12. Classical Conditioning and Humans Click to see Baby Albert to some nice jazz. This type of Classical Conditioning is also known as Aversive Conditioning. • John Watson brought Classical Conditioning to psychology with his Baby Albert experiment.

  13. First-Order and Second-Order Conditioning • First Order Conditioning. • Bell + meat = salivation. • Bell = Salivation. • Second Order Conditioning • (After first order conditioning has occurred) • Light + Bell = Salivation. • Light = Salivation.

  14. Learned Taste Aversions • When it comes to food being paired with sickness, the conditioning is incredibly strong. • Even when food and sickness are hours apart. • Food must be salient (noticeable.)

  15. Garcia and Koelling Study Studied rats and how they make associations. Some associations seem to be adaptive.

  16. Operant Conditioning The Learner is not passive… Learning based on consequence.

  17. The Law of Effect • Edward Thorndike • Locked cats in a cage • Behavior changes because of its consequences. • Rewards strengthen behavior. • If consequences are unpleasant, the Stimulus-Reward connection will weaken. • Called the whole process instrumental learning. Click picture to see a better explanation of the Law of Effect.

  18. B.F. Skinner • The King of Operant Conditioning • All about nurture • Skinner Box

  19. Skinner Box

  20. Reinforcers • A reinforcer is anything the INCREASES a behavior. Positive Reinforcement: • The addition of something pleasant. Negative Reinforcement: • The removal of something unpleasant.

  21. Positive or Negative? Studying for a test. Putting your seatbelt on. Having a headache and taking an aspirin. Getting a kiss for doing the dishes. Faking sick to avoid AP Psych class. Breaking out of jail.

  22. Punishment Meant to decrease a behavior. Positive Punishment • Addition of something unpleasant. Negative Punishment (Omission Training) • Removal of something pleasant. Punishment works best when it is immediately done after behavior and if it is harsh

  23. How do we actually use Operant Conditioning? To train a dog to get your slippers, you would have to reinforce him in small steps. First, to find the slippers. Then to put them in his mouth. Then to bring them to you and so on…this is shaping behavior. Do we wait for the subject to deliver the desired behavior? Sometimes, we use a process called shaping. Shaping is reinforcing small steps on the way to the desired behavior.

  24. Chaining Behaviors Click picture to see a rat changing behaviors. Click to see an example of changing behaviors. Subjects are taught a number of responses successively in order to get a reward.

  25. Primary v. Secondary Reinforcers • Primary Reinforcer • Secondary Reinforcer Things that are in themselves rewarding. Things we have learned to value. Money is a special secondary reinforcer called a generalized reinforcer(because it can be traded for just about anything)

  26. Token Economy Every time a desired behavior is performed, a token is given. They can trade tokens in for a variety of prizes (reinforcers) Used in homes, prisons, mental institutions and schools.

  27. Premack Principle • You have to take into consideration the reinforcers used. • Is the reinforcer wanted….or at least is it more preferable than the targeted behavior. Burgers might be a great positive reinforcer for my husband, but it would not work well on a vegetarian.

  28. Reinforcement Schedules How often to you give the reinforcer? Every time or just sometimes you see the behavior.

  29. Continuous v. Partial Reinforcement • Continuous • Partial Reinforce the behavior EVERYTIME the behavior is exhibited. Usually done when the subject is first learning to make the association. Acquisition comes really fast. But so does extinction. • Reinforce the behavior only SOME of the times it is exhibited. • Acquisition comes more slowly. • But is more resistant to extinction. • FOUR types of Partial Reinforcement schedules.

  30. Ratio Schedules • Fixed Ratio • Variable Ratio Fixed Ration- She gets a manicure for every 5 pounds she loses. Provides a reinforcement after a SET number of responses. Provides a reinforcement after a RANDOM number of responses. Very hard to get acquisition but also very resistant to extinction.

  31. Interval Schedules • Fixed Interval • Variable Interval Fixed Interval: She gets a manicure for every 7 days she stays on her diet. Requires a SET amount of time to elapse before giving the reinforcement. Requires a RANDOM amount of time to elapse before giving the reinforcement. Very hard to get acquisition but also very resistant to extinction.

  32. Motivation - Intrinsic - Extrinsic

  33. Observational Learning Click pic to see some observational learning. Albert Bandura and his BoBo Doll We learn through modeling behavior from others. Observational learning + Operant Conditioning = Social Learning Theory

  34. Latent Leaning • Edward Tolman • Three rat experiment. • Latent means hidden. • Sometimes learning is not immediately evident. • Rats needed a reason to display what they have learned.

  35. Insight Learning Click to see insight learning. Wolfgang Kohler and his Chimpanzees. Some animals learn through the “ah ha” experience.

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