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The Ancient Near East PowerPoint Presentation
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The Ancient Near East

The Ancient Near East

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The Ancient Near East

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  1. The Ancient Near East

  2. FC.10 THE SWEEP OF MESOPOTAMIA’S HISTORY (c.3000-539 B.C.E). Flat terrain Open to invasions Few resources Resourceful people Hot dry river valley Irrig. Organiz. Civiliz. (FC.6) Sumerian city-states emerge as history’s 1st civilization (c.3000 B.C.E.): Cycle of conflicts b/w nomads & civ’s(FC.9) Wars b/w cities over land & water rights (FC.6) Akkad (2350-2250 B.C.E.) which rules through: Tear down rebel walls Hostages More obedent Gov’rs & garrisons 3rd Dynasty of Ur (c.2100-2000B.C.E.) ruling through: 1st known law code Temples & irrig. Jobs Messenger system Babylon (c.1750-1600) rules through: Promote 1 language Temples & irrig. Jobs Promote 1 law code Assyria (c.911-612) conquers empire using: Mounted cavalry Siege weapons Iron weapons Chaldean Emp. (612-539) rules Fertile Crescent but suffers econ. problems: Relig. dispute disrupts emp. S. ports silt up Cut trade Rival Medes cut trade to NE Raise taxes Peasants over-work & over-irrigate soil to pay taxes Rising water table  Salt ruins soil Tax revenues fall Semi-nomadic Persians take Babylon Establish & rule history’s largest empire to that time(FC.15)

  3. Prov. gov’s & priests get out of control Until times of regular floods: c.3000-2250 B.C.E. c.1950-1840 B.C.E. c.1770-1170 B.C.E. Agriculture & prosperity rise Pharaoh’s status & tax revenues rise Prov. gov’s & priests under tighter control Pharaoh’s power increases Hot dry river valley of the Nile Agriculture & econ. decline Pharaoh’s status & tax rev’s decline Periods of anarchy: 1st Intermed. (c.2190-2052 B.C.E.) 2nd Intermed.(c.1778-1570 B.C.E.) 3rd Intermed.(c.1085-525 B.C.E.) Pharaoh’s power declines Prosperous strong periods: Old Kingdom (c.2850-2150 B.C.E.) Middle Kingdom (2052-1778 B.C.E.) New Kingdom (1570-1085 B.C.E.) Desert & sea surround Egypt Peaceful history Need to irrigate Can build a strong unified kingdom Need org. & govt. Hydraulic civiliz. Until times of irregular floods: Low floods (c.2250-1950 B.C.E.) High floods (1840-1770 B.C.E.) Low floods (1170-1100 B.C.E.) FC.11 THE CYCLES OF THE NILE & EGYPTIAN HISTORY Egypt comes under Persian rule in 525 B.C.(FC.15)

  4. Huge expense of pyramids, esp. when others besides pharaoh can build them too Middle Kingdom (2052-1778 B.C.E.) characterized by: First Intermediate period (c.2190-2052 B.C.E.), a period of chaos, econ. decline, civil wars between nomes & nomadic raids until regular floods return (c.1950-1840 B.C.E.) Priests & nobles separated from pharaoh’s influence by long stretches of Nile Cultural golden age, esp. in literature Expansion south into Nubia for gold & NE into Palestine & Syria Building projects such as burial labyrinth w/3500 chambers Strongly centralized govt. to run irrigation & protect peace Old Kingdom (2850-2150 B.C.E.) characterized by: Clashes between city-states (nomes) over land  Egypt coalesces into two kingdoms: Upper (S) & Lower(N) Egypt  Final unification of Egypt under Menes (c.3000 B.C.E.) Prosperity continues until high floods hit (1840-1770 B.C.E.) Pharaoh seen as a god-king Massive pyramid projects FC.11A EGYPT’S OLD AND MIDDLE KINGDOMS (c.3000-1778 B.C.E.) Water from Nile Rise of hydraulic civilization in Egypt (FC.11) Hot & dry climate Low floods (c.2250-1950 B.C.E.) Cycle of bad floods & decline (FC. 11) Cycle of good floods & prosperity (FC. 11) Turmoil of 2nd Intermediate period (c.1778-1570 B.C.E.) (FC.11B)

  5. Egypt beset by mounting problems: Final decline of Egypt as it comes under rule of Libyans, Nubians, Assyrians, and finally Persian Empire (525 B.C.E.) Influx of foreign influences, including religious Priests of Amon get more powerful & independent Egypt’s enemies, esp. Assyria, armed with iron Growing power of priests of Amon who own 30% of Egypt Religious & political turmoil Weakens hold on Egypt’s empire vs. Hittites in N.  Egypt’s power briefly restored by Seti I (1303-1290) & Ramses II (1290-23) after years of warfare Pharaoh Akhenaton (1370-53 B.C.E.) unsuccessfully tries to break power of priests of Amon by shifting religious focus to the sun god, Aton Econ. strain from wars  “Sea peoples” take Syria & Palestine and almost conquer Egypt  More econ. strain Strain of building expensive tombs Palestine & Syria ruled indirectly through vassal kings Nubia in the south for its gold Ruled with fortresses & garrisons New Kingdom (1570-1085 B.C.E.) characterized by foreign expansion to protect Egypt from future invasions: Lower Egypt conquered by nomadic Hyksos armed with horse-drawn chariots & composite bows Hyksos driven out of Egypt (c.1570 B.C.E.) FC.11B EGYPT’S NEW KINGDOM & FINAL DECLINE (1778-525 B.C.E.) Turmoil of 2nd Intermediate period (c.1778-1570 B.C.E.) (FC.11A) Regular floods (c.1770-1170 B.C.E.) (FC.11) Regular floods (c.1770-1170 B.C.E.) (FC.11) While Hyksos adopt Egyptian culture & get soft, Egyptians adopt composite bows & chariots from Hyksos (FC.9) Low floods (c.1170-1100 B.C.E.) (FC.11) Low floods (c.1170-1100 B.C.E.) (FC.11)