ENDOCARDITIS A Presentation by Alexis Anyang-Kusi & Renee Adonteng
INTRODUCTION Endocarditis typically occurs when bacteria or other germs from another part of your body, such as your mouth, spread through your bloodstream and attach to damaged areas in your heart. inflammation of the inside lining of the heart chambers and heart valves (endocardium) Affects 10,000-20,000 people in the U.S. each year
RISK FACTORS • previous surgery on your heart valves • recent dental surgery • using intravenous drugs • An abnormal or damaged heart valve • A severe case of mitral valve prolapse • An artificial heart valve • Certain heart defects • History of endocarditis • Birth defects of the heart Risk
Symptoms may develop slowly or suddenly • Fever, chills, and sweating are the most common symptoms • Fatigue, weakness, and aches and pains in the muscles or joints may also be present. • Feeling short of breath • Red spots under the skin SIGNS Symptoms
DIAGNOSIS • The combination of certain symptoms with particular findings on physical examination will prompt the treating physician to consider endocarditis as the source of the problem. • An eye exam may show bleeding in the retina and a central area of clearing. This is known as Roth's spots. There may be small, pinpoint areas of bleeding on the surface of the eye or the eyelids. • Tests that may be done include: • Blood culture • Complete blood count • A routine echocardiogram or a transesophageal echocardiogram
THE HEART • Begins when different germs and bacteria enter the heart • Bacteria enter your bloodstream from another part of your body and attach to damaged areas in your heart.
THE HEART In time, small clumps of material called vegetations may develop on infected valves. The vegetations contain bacteria or fungi, small blood clots, and other debris from the infection. The vegetations may prevent affected valves from opening and closing properly. The infection can also damage affected valves, and may spread to other areas of the endocardium or heart tissue. excised surgically echocardiogram
GOALS The three main goals to achieve when fighting endocarditis is to…. • Quickly destroy the infection before it develops heavily • Repair or replace heart valve (if necessary) • Take care of complications RECOVERY Treatment
DESTROYING INFECTION During endocarditis, you have to go through several weeks of treatment with antibiotics • You’ll be treated most likely at the hospital since the antibiotics is administrated through a vein • When stable, you may carry on with IV antibiotics at home (4 to 8 weeks depending on how severe the case is) • Then after doctor may instruct antibiotic pills
SURGERY If and when your heart valves become damaged or if an infection occurs in an artificial heart valve, you may need surgery if you have…. • A fungal infection • Heart failure • Breakage of infection in little pieces, result within a stroke • An abscess in your heart • Damage to the electrical system of you heart • Travels to other parts of your body ex: lungs, kidneys or brain
COMPLICATIONS During complications from having endocarditis including heart failure or even a stroke, you should be guided by an infectious disease specialist. A cardiologist may also contribute if your heart muscles are worsened. You also might need a cardiovascular surgeon to replace or repair your heart valve.
CONCLUSION • Endocarditis begins when various germs enter the bloodstream and then makes its way to the heart. • Usually bacterial infections is the most common cause of it. • Symptoms may occur slowly or very quickly inlcuding fever, chills, weakness & shortiness of breathe • When treated patient is sent to hospital to receive antibiotics through IV • Serious problems that they transpire is heart failure or stroke • Surgery to repair heart valves may benefit patient as well. To prevent endocarditis, pateints with specific heart conditions should receive a single dose of an antibiotics prior to certain dental treatments
QUIZ • What are some symptoms of Endocarditis? • What is endocarditis? • When might surgery be needed during endocarditis? • How long should a patient inject antibiotics? • What are the different types of tests done when diagnosing endocarditis?
http://circ.ahajournals.org/content/107/20/e185.full http://www.patient.co.uk/health/infective-endocarditis https://www.cardiosmart.org/Heart-Conditions/Endocarditis http://www.endocarditis.org/know/index.html http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0002088/ http://www.webmd.com/oral-health/endocarditis-prevention?page=2 http://www.webmd.com/heart-disease/tc/endocarditis-treatment-overview Work Cited