International Workshop on SMALL SCALE WIND ENERGY FOR DEVELOPING COUNTRIES organized by RISOE DTU, Denmark and JKUAT, Kenya September 14-16, 2009, Nairobi, Kenya
VERTICAL AXIS TURBINES: A MORE APPROPRIATE TECHNOLOGY Leopoldo Salmaso MD, MITD, MPH, University of Padova, Italy on behalf of:
VERTICAL AXIS TURBINES: A MORE APPROPRIATE TECHNOLOGY U&Us, Italy Salesians of Don Bosco, East Africa TANDEM, Tanzania MED, Italy Passionist Fathers, East Africa University of Padova, Italy University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania KAKUTE, TIRDO and TATC, Tanzania Regione del Veneto, Italy
The “old American” HAWT * is golden standard in Africa, but is NOT appropriate technology * Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine
APPROPRIATE TECHNOLOGY: - ACCEPTABILITY - ACCESSIBILITY: • materials • production • installation • maintenance • spare parts • disposal • DESIGN
DESIGN: the simplest VAWT ( Vertical Axis Wind Turbine )
DESIGN :After 30+ years experience in East Africa, we believe that the Vertical Axis Wind Turbines (VAWTs) are more appropriate to our setting than HAWTs, for the reasons summarized in the next table:
HAWTs are intrinsically more efficient than VAWTs, but the parameter that really matters is COST- EFFICIENCY. VAWTs are simpler and cheaper. As a matter of fact, in the mini-eolic sector VAWTs are highly competitive today in the western market.
If we consider this matter from the point of view of a developing Country, we need to calculate the real, present and future costs of TECHNOLOGICAL DEPENDENCE. We conclude that the simpler design, i.e. slow VAWT, is by far the more appropriate.
Superb design, Appropriate materials, but… …too fast !
STEP 1 (what we have done)we have designed and constructed prototypes producing 0.2 to 20 KW.They are patented, and carry the Trade Mark:
STEP 1 (cont.)With EOLEO (E olic O pen L icenses for E qual O pportunities) U&Us is EC’s Official Partner in the Sustainable Energy Europe Campaign
STEP 3(our goal) Subjects willing to produce and install the EOLEO windmills in Developing Countries will be granted royalty free licence and technical support, provided they adhere to our ethical code, and loyally contribute to the progress of the “open source” EOLEO Community.
STEP 2 (what we are doing)We are preparing an EAST-AFRICAN MASTER COURSE on APPROPRIATE TECHNOLOGY WINDMILLS, in collaboration with VETA (the Tanzanian Authority for Vocational Training) and with the Salesians of Don Bosco who have a secular experience in Vocational Training, and run VT schools in 132 Countries worldwide.
STEP 2 (cont.)The best performing pupils from the VT Schools in Kenya, Tanzania and other African Countries will be offered a scholarship to participate in the Master Course.A Cooperative of past-pupils will be followed and assisted in producing, marketing, installing, and maintaining the EOLEO windmills.
STEP 2 (cont.)Micro-Credit schemes will support the past-pupils, and possibly their clients as well. Special incentives will be granted for the safe disposal of exhausted Lead-Acid batteries, and possibly for clean technologies of energy storage (Lithium-Polymer batteries, hydrogen production, etc.)
Thanks for your attention