Why Study the Industrial Revolution? • All nations face problems of industrialization, such as air and water pollution, acid rain, and crowded cities. • Today’s global society depends on transportation and communication that can be traced to the Industrial Revolution. • Industrialized nations such as those in western Europe continue to use low-wage labor from less-industrialized nations. • Socialism and communism have increasingly given way to capitalism, causing major global upheavals in places such as Russia and eastern Europe. • Tensions continue between the industrialized nations of Europe and North America and less-developed nations such as those in Africa.
What is the Industrial Revolution? • Industrialization: the process of developing machine production of goods. • The Industrial Revolution refers to the greatly increased output of machine-made goods that began in England in the mid 1700s. • Before Industrial Rev: people wove textiles by hand • After Industrial Rev: machines began to do this & other jobs • I.R. spread from England to U.S. & continental Europe (mostly western Europe)
How do you industrialize? • You need natural resources, such as: • Water power & coal to fuel new machines • Iron ore to construct machines, tools, & buildings • Rivers for inland transportation • Harbors from which merchant ships set sail • And (in the 1800s) a ton of new inventions like: • Reapers, telegraphs, sewing machines, telephones, steam-driven locomotives
How did Industrialization change economics? • New inventions and development of factories • Rapidly growing industry in the 1800s • Increased production & higher demand for raw materials • Growth of worldwide trade • Population explosion & expanding labor force • Exploitation of mineral resources • Highly developed banking and investment system • Advances in transportation, agriculture, and communication
How did Industrialization change society? • Increase in population of cities • Lack of city planning • Loss of family stability • Expansion of middle class • Harsh conditions for laborers, including children • Workers’ progress versus laissez-faire economic attitudes • Improved standard of living • Creation of new jobs • Encouragement of technological progress
How did Industrialization change politics? • Child labor laws to end abuses • Reformers urging equal distribution of wealth • Trade unions formed • Social reform movements, such as utilitarianism, utopianism, socialism, and Marxism • Reform bills in Parliament and Congress
Impact of Industrialization • Rise of global inequality: gap widened between industrialized and nonindustrialized countries • Industrialized countries needed raw materials from less-developed countries (making it so they could not have those materials to industrialize themselves) • Industrialized countries sold their manufactured goods to nonindustrialized countries • Europe and U.S. gained tremendous economic power over nonindustrialized countries in Africa & Asia
Are the countries of the United States and the Western Europe better off than the rest of the world today? EXPLAIN!