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The Respiratory System

The Respiratory System

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The Respiratory System

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  1. The Respiratory System HCT II

  2. The respiratory system • Consists of lungs and air passages • Controlled through the medulla oblongata • Responsible for taking in oxygen and removing carbon dioxide • Must work continuously or death will occur • The body has approximately a 4-6 minute supply of oxygen

  3. Hi I am O2 ,you can call me oxygen, and I will be your guide today. I advise you keep all feet and hands inside the ride at all times.

  4. Respiratory Intro You may be asking, what is the Respiratory system? Well, the Respiratory system is the system that helps you breath in and out, so oxygen (02) can be pumped through your body and carbon dioxide (CO2) can be removed from the blood stream. You must remember that the Respiratory system is made up of many different organs. JH

  5. Where are we? Nasal Passage Tongue Pharynx Bronchi Tubes The Trachea is held open by partial rings of cartilage. Alveoli (air-sacs) Thin-walled blood vessels called capillaries Bronchioles pass air to and from your alveoli. Very thin cells line the alveoli so that O2 and CO2 can pass in and out of the blood. Here We Go!!! JH

  6. The Nose and Mouth This is where it all begins. This is where the oxygen first enters your body and also where Carbon Dioxide leaves. MB

  7. The Nose and Mouth When the air comes into your nose it gets filtered by tiny hairs called cilia and it is moistened by the mucus that is in your nose. Mucus also helps to trap pathogens Your sinuses also help out with your Respiratory System. They help to moisten and heat the air that you breath. Air can also get into your body through your mouth/oral cavity but air is not filtered as much when it enters in through your mouth. MB

  8. Nose and Mouth Picture Nasal Cavity Nostril Oral Cavity Pharynx Olfactory receptors for the sense of smell are located in the nose Lacrimal ducts drain tears from the eye into the nose To provide additional moisture for the air

  9. Nasal Passage Tongue Pharynx Bronchi Tubes The Trachea is held open by partial rings of cartilage. Alveoli (air-sacs) Thin-walled blood vessels called capillaries Bronchioles pass air to and from your alveoli. Very thin cells line the alveoli so that O2 and CO2 can pass in and out of the blood. Where are We? We are here. MB

  10. Next we will head down to your pharynx • (throat) and your trachea (windpipe). • This is where the air passes from your • nose to your bronchi tubes and lungs. As air leaves • nose it enters the pharynx • Consists of three sections • Nasopharynx- upper portion behind nasal cavities, • contains tonsils, adenoids and eustachian tube openings • Oropharynx- behind the mouth, receives air from the • nose and air and food from the mough • Laryngopharynx- bottom section, which branches into • trachea (windpipe) and the esophagus. The Pharynx and Trachea

  11. Mouth Pharynx (Throat) Trachea The Pharynx and Trachea Your pharynx (throat) gathers air after it passes through your nose and then the air is passed down to your trachea (windpipe).Carries air between your pharynx and bronchi Your trachea is held open by “incomplete rings of cartilage.” Without these rings your trachea might close off and air would not be able to get to and from your lungs.

  12. Nasal Passage Tongue Pharynx Bronchi Tubes The Trachea is held open by partial rings of cartilage. Alveoli (air-sacs) Thin-walled blood vessels called capillaries Bronchioles pass air to and from your alveoli. Very thin cells line the alveoli so that O2 and CO2 can pass in and out of the blood. Where are We? We are here.

  13. Larynx (voice box) Lies between the pharynx and the trachea Has a framework of cartilage called the Adams apple As air leaves the lungs the vocal cords vibrate and produce sound

  14. Epiglottis This is a special piece of cartilage that Is a leaf like structure. It closes the opening into the larynx during swallowing, preventing food And liquids from entering the respiratory tract

  15. The Bronchi Tubes and Bronchiole • Your trachea (windpipe) splits up into • two bronchi tubes. • Each bronchus enters a lung and carries • air from the trachea to the lungs MB

  16. The Bronchi Tubes and Bronchiole These bronchi tubes split up, like tree branches, and get smaller and smaller inside your lungs. They form your smallest branches called bronchioles. The air flows past your bronchi tubes and into your bronchioles. These tubes keep getting smaller and smaller until they finally end with small air sacs (called alveoli). But we will go there later…

  17. Alveoli and Bronchi Picture Trachea Bronchi Tubes Bronchiole Alveoli

  18. Nasal Passage Tongue Pharynx Bronchi Tubes The Trachea is held open by partial rings of cartilage. Alveoli (air-sacs) Thin-walled blood vessels called capillaries Bronchioles pass air to and from your alveoli. Very thin cells line the alveoli so that O2 and CO2 can pass in and out of the blood. Where are We? We are here.

  19. The Alveoli and Capillary Network Now we will head over to the alveoli and what happens when the air finally makes it down there.

  20. Air sacs that look like bunch of grapes • Adults have approximately 500 million alveoli • Capillaries allow oxygen and carbon dioxide to be exchanged between the blood and the lungs • Inner surface of the alveoli are covered with a liquid fatty substance that helps prevent the lungs from collapsing

  21. The Alveoli and Capillary Network Your alveoli are tiny air sacs that fill up with air/oxygen when you breath in. Your alveoli are surrounded by many tiny blood vessels called capillaries. The walls of your alveoli (and capillaries) are so thin that the oxygen or carbon dioxide can pass through them, traveling right into, or out of your blood stream.

  22. Capillary Carbon Dioxide is dropped off Wall of the air sac Oxygen is picked up Red Blood Cell Alveoli Here is a close up picture of your Alveoli and a Capillary surrounding it.

  23. Nasal Passage Tongue Pharynx Bronchi Tubes The Trachea is held open by partial rings of cartilage. Alveoli (air-sacs) Thin-walled blood vessels called capillaries Bronchioles pass air to and from your alveoli. Very thin cells line the alveoli so that O2 and CO2 can pass in and out of the blood. Where are We? We are here.

  24. Alveolus

  25. Ventilation: Movement of air into and out of lungs. Has three aspects External respiration: Internal respiration: Cellular Respiration:

  26. Internal and External Respiration • Video

  27. External Respiration • - Exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the lungs and blood stream • Oxygen breathed in through the respiratory system enters the alveoli • Concentration of oxygen in the alveoli is higher than the concentration in the blood capillaries • Oxygen leaves the alveoli and enters the capillaries or bloodstream

  28. External Respiration Continued • Carbon dioxide is a waste product carried in the blood stream • Concentration of carbon dioxide is higher in the capillaries • It leaves the capillaries and enters the alveoli • Alveoli expel it from the body during exhalation

  29. Internal Respiration • Exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygen between the cells and bloodstream • Oxygen is carried to the cells by the blood. • Concentration of oxygen is higher in the blood than in the body cells • Oxygen leaves the blood capillaries and enters the body cells • Cells use the oxygen and nutrients to produce energy, water aend carbon dioxide (cellular respiration) • Level of carbon dioxide is higher in cells and enters the bloodstream to be transported back to the lungs for external respiration to take place.

  30. Cool pictures

  31. Intro to Diaphragm Now we will look at the Diaphragm. You might be wondering, what does the Diaphragm do? The Diaphragm is an important factor in breathing.

  32. Diagram of Diaphragm

  33. Diaphragm Experiment Here is an experiment that you can try.

  34. Use the bottles provided to add the balloons Place a balloon in the top of the bottle so that it can be expanded Cut a balloon and tape it to the bottom of the bottle. Make sue it’s as air tight as possible Inflate and deflate the balloon by pulling on the bottom (diaphgram)

  35. Fun Facts * At rest, the body takes in and breathes out about 10 liters of air each minute. * The right lung is slightly larger than the left. * The highest recorded "sneeze speed" is 165 km per hour. * The surface area of the lungs is roughly the same size as a tennis court. * The capillaries in the lungs would extend 1,600 kilometers if placed end to end. * We lose half a liter of water a day through breathing. This is the water vapor we see when we breathe onto glass. * A person at rest usually breathes between 12 and 15 times a minute. * The breathing rate is faster in children and women than in men.

  36. Key Words • Respiratory System- The group of organs in your body that are responsible for taking in Oxygen and breathing out the Carbon Dioxide which is the waste product of cellular respiration. • Oxygen-The gas that your body needs to work and function. • Carbon Dioxide- The waste product (gas) that is produced through respiration of people and animals. • Nose/Nasal Cavity- Where Oxygen first enters your body. Tiny hairs help filter the air and air is moistened and heated by your nose. Your Nose leads into your Nasal Cavity. • Mouth/Oral Cavity- Oxygen/air can also enter through your Mouth but it is not filtered. Your Mouth opens up into your Oral Cavity. • Sinus- A cavity in the bones of your skull that helps moisten and heat the air that you breath. • Pharynx/Throat- Gathers air from your Nasal and Oral Cavities and passes it to your Trachea. • Trachea/Windpipe- A tube like pathway that connects your throat to your Bronchi Tubes and lungs. Air passes through it when it travels from the Pharynx to the Bronchi Tubes.

  37. Key Words Cont. • Bronchi Tubes- Each tube (one per lung) splits up into many smaller tubes called Bronchiole, like branches on a tree. • Bronchiole- Keep splitting up until they reach your Alveoli. • Respiratory Bronchiole- The air-tubes that are actually connected to the Alveoli. • Alveolar Duct- The final tube, which is part of the Alveoli, that leads to the air-sacs. • Alveolar Sac- Where the chemical change takes place and where blood cells pick up oxygen and drop off carbon dioxide. • Alveoli- Tiny air-sacs at the end of your Alveolar Duct. They fill up with Oxygen and are surrounded by Capillaries. • Capillaries- Tiny blood streams (around one cell wide) that surround your Alveoli. They take Oxygen out of our Lungs and replace it with Carbon Dioxide, which you later breath out. • Diaphragm- The muscle membrane that helps you breath in and out by changing the pressure in your chest cavity.