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Do Now • Think of a time when you (or someone you know) was classified in a stereotype or when you judged someone else based on a stereotype. Discuss, in 5-7 sentences, what the stereotype was, what the “proof” was that you were a part of it, how you or the other person reacted (thoughts, feelings, emotions, retaliation), and what your personal opinion of that stereotype is.
Do Now • Describe a trip or journey you have taken in detail. Describe what was talked about and how you felt about the other people you traveled with. Discuss in 5-7 sentences.
The Medieval Period 1066-1485 Context for Understanding The Canterbury Tales
The Middle of What? Classical Greece and Rome The Middle Ages The Renaissance
The Power of the Medieval Church • Controlled about 1/3 of land in Western Europe • Prompted the Crusades and the Inquisition • Monasticism: poverty, chastity, and obedience • Libraries & scriptoria to copy books and • illuminate manuscripts.
A Transition • Vernacular (OE) to more defined Language (ME) • Rapid literary, political, linguistic and Religious shifts
Black Plague Ring around the Rosie Pocket full of Posies Ashes, Ashes We all fall down
Black Plague Ring around the Rosie the mark on your body when first getting the "Black Death" it was a yellowish ring around a dark redish spot Pocket full of Posies they had to burn the bodies outside because so many people was dieing and it started to stink bad Ashes, Ashes dead bodies We all fall (dead) down
Black Plague • Peaked between 1448-1350 • Estimated to have killed 30% to 60% of Europe's population, reducing the world's population from an estimated 450 million to between 350 and 375 million in 1400.
Feudalism • Political system • Used to rank a person’s social obligation and status • Exchange property for service—lord/overlord: promised property • Vassal: received property in exchange for service • Loyalty and faithfulness to lord though lord still owned all the land
Feudalism • Divided out some to church and Barons known as fifes • Had to • pay taxes • Supply knights/soldiers; received small portion of land (manors) • Land worked by peasants (serfs) • Kings held feudal domains in England and France
In other words, feudalism is a political, economic, and social system based on loyalty and military service.
Changing Government • Norman Rule ended in 1154 • Henry II comes to rule; Founded the house of English Monarchs • Church vs. King power • Appoints Thomas Becket to archbishop at Canterbury as a way to try and control both church and state
Becket • Becket defies King Henry limiting the kings power in the church. • On his deathbed, King Henry laments the position and actions of Becket and the knights take it as an order. • Becket is murdered by 4 knights in 1170
Becket • Is canonized by the pope • Henceforth became a popular sight of pilgrimage
Chaucer Background • Geoffrey Chaucer (1340?-1400) was the earliest great poet and story-teller in English literature. He was born in ____________________, in Thames Street not far from the Tower of London. Living close to the docks and being the son of a prosperous wine merchant allowed for plenty of stimulation for Chaucer’s active imagination growing up. London
Chaucer Background • In 1357, he went to be a page of the Countess of Ulster who was a daughter-in-law of King Edward III. He met ___________________ and statesmen, ___________________ and ambassadors, artists, musicians and craftsmen. When later he was promoted to ___________________, his wages rose to seven pence halfpenny a day and he was allowed a room, which he shared with a fellow squire. In 1359, he was sent abroad to fight the ___________________ in what is now called the Hundred Years War. That winter he was taken prisoner near Rheims and the following year, when he was ___________________ for 16£, he went home. King Edward III must have thought highly of him to pay this sum, which was a ___________________ amount in those days. Soldiers Courtiers Squire French ransomed Large
Chaucer Background • In 1366, when he was aged approximately ___________________, Chaucer married Philippa de Roet, lady-in-waiting to the Queen and a sister of the King son’s third wife. • Love played little part in ___________________ marriages as they were usually arranged by parents or friends. From the ___________________ comments that Chaucer makes in his poems about marriage, it seems that this was not a particularly happy match. Twenty-Six Medieval Unflattering
Do NowReview Fill-In • The Canterbury Tales, by ______________ ____________, was written during the _____________ period. The Canterbury Tales is lighthearted and funny, satirizing Pilgrims who go on a _________________, a journey for _____________ or moral reasons. Saint __________ ___ ___________ is a martyr who sacrificed his life for the greater good of the church and its people. The pilgrims are on a journey to Canterbury _______________ to visit the shrine of this martyr.
Pilgrimage • A long journey or search of great moral significance • A journey to a sacred place or shrine • Religious, political, personal
Buddhism • Lumbini: birth place in Nepal • Bodh Gaya: Place of Enlightenment • Sarnath: Delivered his first teaching • Kusinara: Attained mahaparinirvana (death)
Hellenic Greece • Delphi: Oracle of Zeus at Dodona
Islam • Mecca: the hajj; one of the five Pillars of Islam • Ziarah: Mosqe and grave of Prophet Muhammad
Christianity • Holy Land: Jerusalem; sites connected with the birth, life and crucifixion of Jesus • Rome & the Vatican: St. Peter’s Square • Mount Sinai: Egypt, holy mountain • Canterbury: shrine of Sir Thomas Becket
Communism • USSR: Moscow, Mausoleum of Lenin in Red Square • China: Peking, Mausoleum of Mao Tse Tung in Tiananmen Square
Antiquity • Karnak, Egypt. • Thebes, Egypt. • Delphi, Greece • Kurukshetra, India.