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Middle Childhood – Physical

Middle Childhood – Physical

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Middle Childhood – Physical

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  1. Middle Childhood – Physical • Physical Growth • Brain development • Physical Issues of Middle Childhood • Obesity • Physical activity • Newspaper assignment Class 11 Early Child Physical

  2. Middle Child Physical Growth • Slow & steady growth • extension of early pattern, bones lengthen, broaden • Add 2-3 inches and 5 lbs per year • Secular trends: • we have seen increases in children’s body size • From one generation to the next • by about 1/3 inch per decade 1970s to 1990s • Due to improved health and better nutrition • Now increases in height slowing, • But increases in weight are continuing Class 11 Early Child Physical

  3. Middle Child Motor Skills • Gross Motor Skills • Improvements in: • flexibility, balance, agility, strength Class 11 Early Child Physical

  4. Middle Child Motor Skills • Improvements in basic skills continues: • Activities in playground contribute to motor skills • Climbing - stairs, ladders, ropes, monkey bars • Hanging – arms or knees on bars • Swinging – rings or rope –Tarzan • Rolling – summer saults • Jumping - take-offs & landings • Upper body supports • – gymnastics - bars Class 11 Early Child Physical

  5. Middle Child Motor Skills • Developmental issues • The playground skills require child to have: • Strength, flexibility, balance etc • Also: risk–taking and self-confidence • Parents are often fearful of letting child go • But kids -be encouraged to take sensible risks • Sometimes called self-testing skills • Can I do it? How good am I? Class 11 Early Child Physical

  6. Middle Child Motor Skills Class 11 Early Child Physical

  7. Fine motor skills • Fine motor skills are refined Class 11 Early Child Physical

  8. Six-Year Old’s Drawing Class 11 Early Child Physical

  9. Eight-Year Old’s Drawing Text page 419 Class 11 Early Child Physical

  10. Ten-Year Old’s Drawing • Complex • Perspective • Far objects smaller • Overlapping figures • Interesting placement • Use of colour Text page 419 Class 11 Early Child Physical

  11. Changes in brain development • new MRI methods of observing the brain in action Class 11 Early Child Physical

  12. Changes in brain development Total brain volume • brain is 90% of adult size by age six. • head circumference changes through childhood • Can see child who wears an adult’s hat, • Boys add about 2 inches and • Girls 1.9 inches in diameter from age 4 to age 18. • due mostly to an increase in skull thickness, not brain size (Giedd, 2004). Class 11 Early Child Physical

  13. White matter • consists of myelinated axons, fatty sheath • speeds transmission between neurons • 100 times faster than unmyelinated neurons. • white matter increases through childhood • by same amount in all major lobes of the brain • frontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital. • white matter is important to development • Allows child to integrate activities across different areas of brain Class 11 Early Child Physical

  14. White matter • Eg, better white connections between • hippocampus & frontal cortex: • better memories of past events • help them make decisions. • Broca’s area (speech production) & Wernicke’s (understanding): • improve children’s understanding • & interpretation of language • & faster verbal responses. Class 11 Early Child Physical

  15. Corpus callosum • connects right and left hemispheres of the brain • consists of 180 million myelinated axons, • develops from front to back, • so anterior reaches adult size earlier than the posterior section. • important for any brain activity benefiting from interhemispheric integration, such as • improvement in bimanual motor skills, • unification of sensory fields, • improved memory storage and retrieval, • attention, arousal, • language function, • creativity, and more complex cognitive abilities. Class 11 Early Child Physical

  16. Subcortical gray matter Basal ganglia - central role in control of • movement, higher cognitive function, attention & affective states • Caudate nucleus – motor inhibition, implicit learning • larger in females (smaller caudate in males) • may relate to male-predominant disorders: ADHD & Tourette’s • Amygdala - emotion regulation • contains more androgen than estrogen receptors, • increases in size only in males (smaller amygdala in females). • Hippocampus - in memory formation - context dependent • contains more estrogen receptors • increases only in females (smaller hippocampus in males). • May account for sex differences in emotional disorders • depression and anxiety (greater in females) • learning difficulties (greater in males) (Giedd, 2004). Class 11 Early Child Physical

  17. Cortical gray matter • Gray thickens & thins over childhood • As child adapts to social environment & experiences • reflects changes in size & complexity of neurons, • not a change in the number of neurons. • Longit studies - curvilinear inverted–U pattern of gray • Arborization: Thickening when cells grow bushier • extra branches & more connections with other neurons. • Pruning: Thinning when connections not used • use it or lose itprinciple, • eliminates redundant synaptic connections • & speeds cognitive processes. • Earliest in sensorimotor, last in dl prefrontal • forcomplex thinking. Class 11 Early Child Physical

  18. Summary Changes in brain over childhood: • Allow children to inhibit responses • characterizes transition to mature performance • and enhanced brain function. • are not influencing the emergence of responses • improve their higher level cognition • modulate emotions, think flexibly & inhibit impulses • But they don’t always show mature brain function. • may be vulnerable to fail under demanding situations, • or when they are distracted or unmotivated. Class 11 Early Child Physical

  19. Obesity in Childhood Obesity • weight 20%+ • higher than healthy wt • BMI ≥ 30. • Wt/Ht ratio • body mass index Class 11 Early Child Physical

  20. Obesity Trends Figure of obesity trends text page 411 Class 11 Early Child Physical

  21. Obesity • Prevalence of obesity: • Berk: 15% of Canadian children are obese • Self reports:boys:9%; girls: 10% • Canada: CCHS 2000–2001 survey data • Is increasing: 1981->1996: doubled. • Prevalence of overweight Canada: • BMI ≥ 25 – 29 for 7 - 13 yr olds: • Self reports:boys:20%; girls: 17% • Is increasing: 1981->1996: almost doubled. Class 11 Early Child Physical

  22. Obesity • Nova Scotia study (Veugelers & Fitzgerald, 2003). • Measured 4300 grade 5s • 97% of schools across province • ht, wt, & risk factors • Obesity: 33%; overweight: 10% • Risk factors for being overweight: • Not eating vs eating breakfast: 50% more likely • Buying lunch vs bringing lunch to school: 47% more • Having family supper 3-4 times vs 1- times/wk: 30% less • Eating in front of TV, 1- times vs 5+ times/wk: 40% less Class 11 Early Child Physical

  23. Obesity • Health issues: • Obesity tracks into adulthood • Over 80% of obese children will become obese adults • reduces life expectancy, makes for poorer quality life • Hypertension, high cholesterol • Type 2 diabetes, Osteoporosis • Mental health problems • eg, self- esteem, depression, social isolation • Feeling unattractive, clumsy • Stereotyping and teasing Class 11 Early Child Physical

  24. Obesity • Why do you think the numbers of overweight or obese children continue to rise? Class 11 Early Child Physical

  25. TV Viewing & Childhood Obesity Figure of TV watching test page 408 Class 11 Early Child Physical

  26. Obesity • Treating obesity • Is a family affair, need parents input • Kids may try crash diets but go back to old habits • Focus is on changing family behaviours • Change in eating habits & • Daily exercise • Reinforcement for progress – time with parent Class 11 Early Child Physical

  27. Obesity • Schools - How can schools help? • Communities – What factors and policies would help? Class 11 Early Child Physical

  28. Physical activity • Developing habit of activity in childhood important • time to lay foundation for future health. • If inactivity established in childhood, habit will carry into adulthood • But only ~ 33% of children meet guidelines for optimal growth and healthy development. • Children’s habitual physical activity levels are low & • rates decline dramatically from child to adolescence. Class 11 Early Child Physical

  29. Physical activity • Children’s fitness • identified as issue neglected by parents & schools. • Benefits of physical activity: numerous & diverse • Health: • reduces the risk of premature mortality , • coronary heart disease, hypertension, • colon cancer, osteoporosis, • obesity, diabetes. • Provides skills: aids self-confidence, self-esteem • Offers opportunities for friends, social acceptance Class 11 Early Child Physical

  30. Physical activity • Problem: • 80 - 90 % parents believe their children have “good” Activity Levels • In recent report: Canada’s report card on physical activity for children and youth 2006, by Healthy Active Kids Canada. • But < half Canadian children & teens • meet minimum daily physical-activity standards • of 90 min/day of moderate to vigorous exercise • Moderate exercise: eg walking. • Vigorous exercise: eg running, climbing, or swimming. Class 11 Early Child Physical

  31. Participation in organized sport • Participation in organized sport: • by 40- 50% of kids in Canada • at least 2 - 3 times per week. • Fewer girls (41%) than boys (48%) • Most kids participate at least once • Baseball, soccer, football, hockey • Differences by SES: • Fewer from low SES families (38%) • than in middle (44%) • & high SES families (50%). Class 11 Early Child Physical

  32. Participation in unstructured sports • at home or in neighbourhood • protects vs overweight & obesity • Recommendation: • children participate 2 – 3+ times/wk • only ~ 2/3 Cdn kids do it that often. • Lower participation by girls: • Girls 20% less likely than boys • 72% for boys vs. 54% for girls. • SES: • Only small difference in rate Class 11 Early Child Physical

  33. Going “on your own” to School Active transport to school is down. • In Canada (2004) parents report • Walking to school - declined to 23%. • 36% in 1998. • Cycling - consistent at less than 10% • almost 90% of children own a bicycle. • Riding school bus - increased to 54%. • 43% in 1998 • Driven in family car - consistent at 20%. • In NS study: Walking or biking to school: • ~ 15% - 39% less likely to be overweight Class 11 Early Child Physical

  34. Physical Education in School • Recommended phys ed as standard: 150 min/wk • Required phys ed in MB (2004): 60 min/wk • Only 805 of all schools in Canada meet standard • Canadian Association for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance (CAHPER) • Parents believe kids get enough phys ed at school • Over half think they get 3 - 4 days/ wk of phys ed. • Parents need to be better informed and supported • to advocate for more phys ed for their children Class 11 Early Child Physical

  35. Screen time • Leisure time use - TV & computer combined • Recommendations for screen time: • by Canadian Paediatric Society & US Academy of Pediatrics • Children: no more than 2 hrs/day • Preschoolers: no more than 1 hr/ day. • Excessive screen time • Means less chance for physical activity • Linked to health problems, • poor eating habits, obesity, high BP, poor bones • Linked to psychological problems • body and self-image issues, • anti-social behaviour Class 11 Early Child Physical

  36. Screen time Canadian findings: • Only 20% children meet guidelines • of 2 hrs or less of screen time • regardless of gender and family income. • More than 50% children watch 2 - 4 hrs TV/day • 33% spend 2+ hrs on leisure time pc use • Non-school computer use is rising, but • TV viewing remaining consistent Class 11 Early Child Physical

  37. Physical activity • Social factors: for 5 – 12 yrs age group • Gender: • 30% of girls, 50% of boys are physically active • girls consistently 10 - 15% less active than boys. • Lower perceived family wealth • lower activity levels • Family encouragement, involvement • But factors not related to lower physical activity: • unemployment rates, education, & average income. Class 11 Early Child Physical

  38. Increasing physical activity • Community/school strategies recommended: • Coalition for Active Living • http://www.activeliving.ca/ • Incorporate more physical activity in schools • Allow communities to use schools after hours • Mandate daily physical education K-12 • Expand existing programs in community Class 11 Early Child Physical

  39. Increasing physical activity More Recommendations: • Healthy Active Kids Canada:2006 report • Develop public awareness • on importance of unstructured physical activity & play • active (on your own) transportation to school • Ensure quality physical education classes • Get children to step away from the screen • Fill time with play & unstructured family activity. Class 11 Early Child Physical

  40. Parents can play a role • To ensure their children are physically active • They provide skills, values, norms, knowledge that kids need. Parents important at this age. • Findings: • ~36% parents are physically active with children • was 43% in 2000. • ~32% parents rarely/never play with kids • ie, playing actively in games or sport. • 46% of parents with kids 5 - 12 yr • 21% of parents of teens 13 – 17yr Class 11 Early Child Physical

  41. Parents can play a role • What can parents do to help encourage more physical activity in their children? Class 11 Early Child Physical

  42. Appropriate Physical Activity • Goal: to have fun • Build on child’ interests • Teach appropriate skills • Basic – kick, throw, bat • Simple games • Limit practices • 2 times/wk, 30-60 min • Avoid unhealthy competition • Let everyone play • Allow child to make rules • Lets them understand fair play, • & others’ perspectives Class 11 Early Child Physical

  43. Websites of interest • http://www.activehealthykids.ca/ Active Health Kids Canada This is the website of a charitable organization committed to advocating the importance of quality, accessible, and enjoyable physical activity experiences for children and youth. • http://www.cflri.ca/ The Canadian Fitness and Lifestyle Research Institute conducts research, monitors trends and makes recommendations to increase population levels of physical activity and improve the health of all Canadians. • http://www.phac-aspc.gc.caPublic Health Agency of Canada. Click the Child Health link to read about health issues, child health, injuries, and child abuse in Canada. • http://www.cahperd.ca • Canadian Association for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance. This website promotes physical activity in schools in Canada. Class 11 Early Child Physical

  44. Newspaper clipping • Small Groups • Summarize your article for your group • key developmental issues your article raises • Class discussion Class 11 Early Child Physical