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Prevention and Diagnosis of Birth Defects

Prevention and Diagnosis of Birth Defects

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Prevention and Diagnosis of Birth Defects

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  1. Prevention and Diagnosis of Birth Defects Chapter 3 Section 3

  2. Past vs. Present • In the past- little could be done • Now- National Foundation/ March of Dimes • Fund ongoing research • Several causes can now be controlled • Drugs, infections • Tests can diagnose prenatally • Early detection- early treatment

  3. Genetic Counseling • Hereditary or ___________________can be predicted • Tells _______________ • ___________________: understand genetic disorders, help prepare for emotional and financial issues

  4. Genetic Counseling Process • Obtains family medical history • Inherited disorders, birth defects, causes of death • Physical examinations • Questionnaires & tests • Result: _____________ ______________________________________

  5. Prenatal Tests • Several methods are used to determine if specific birth defects are present • Useful _________________for early _______________

  6. Examples • ___________: a technique of using _____ _________ to make a video image of an unborn baby to check for specific health problems • Shows if fetus is developing on schedule • Defects of skeleton or organs are able to be detected • Verify _____________ • Not always ___________

  7. Examples • ______________: process of withdrawing a sample of the amniotic fluid surrounding an unborn baby with a special needle and testing that fluid for indications of specific birth defects or other health problems • Doctor uses ultrasound to guide the needle • Most commonly used to test for ______________ • Risky- only used if _______ _______________________ • Always the woman’s choice

  8. Examples • ____________________: process of testing for specific birth defects by sampling small amounts of the tissue from the membrane (________) that encases the fetus • Inserts a catheter through the vagina into the uterus • Samples of the villi-fingers of tissue • Protrude from chorion • Can be done earlier in pregnancy • Higher risk for ___________

  9. Early diagnosis • >100 birth defects can be diagnosed prenatally • Some can be treated before birth • Surgery, therapies can be done prenatally • More diagnostic tools are being researched

  10. Avoiding Environmental Hazards Ch 3 Section 4

  11. Overview • Mother-to-be is responsible for taking every step to increase the chances of having a healthy baby • Important– understanding the harmful effects of environmental hazards such as alcohol, drugs, smoking, X rays, and infections

  12. Alcohol • Women who drink alcohol during pregnancy • often have children born with a variety of birth defects • Some can be fatal

  13. F.A.S. • ___________________: physical deformities and cognitive problems resulting from a mother’s consumption of alcohol during pregnancy

  14. F.A.S Effects • Most all ___________ _______________ • Alcohol interferes with tissue growth and development • _______________is most easily injured • Slow growth, poor coordination, behavior problems, heart defects, and ______________ ___________________

  15. Fetal Alcohol Effects (FAE) • Woman who drinks less alcohol • Less several condition involving some, but not all, the symptoms of FAS • There is ______________ _____________ that a woman can drink without taking the chance of causing harm to the fetus • Degree of damage is related to ___________ • No _________

  16. Other Drugs • Many doctors believe taking drugs is a major cause of birth defects • Drugs to be aware of: • Alcohol • Prescription meds • OTC like aspirin, cold meds, nasal spray • Caffeine & nicotine • Illegal drugs- marijuana, LSD, crack, heroin • Inhalants

  17. Medications • No completely safe drug • Even ____________ meds can be dangerous • Late 1950s: ____________ used to help morning sickness • Caused severe birth defects in >5,000 infants • Over ________ items carry warning labels

  18. Prenatal Development • Medicines during ______________ are most damaging • Reduces nutrient-rich blood flow to fetus • Organs, major systems, limbs are developing • Brain development & mental retardation • _____________ slowed growth, infections, bleeding • Before birth- drugs could still be baby’s system

  19. Medically Necessary • Managing serious conditions • Diabetes, high blood pressure • Under Dr.’s direction • Advised to give up meds for _________________

  20. Caffeine • Found in may drinks and medications • Coffee, tea, hot chocolate, soda • Large amounts can result in _____________

  21. Tobacco • _________ linked to low birth weight • _______= critical factor for baby’s __________ • Premature birth

  22. Illegal Drugs • Passes addiction on to baby at birth • Infants go through ________________ • Painful illness resulting on drug dependence • Can result in death • Possibly affect on learning ability and behavior • Research shows children seem _______________ __________________________________________

  23. Specific Cases • _______________ are shown to result in: • Miscarriage • Stillbirth • Prematurity • Birth defects

  24. X-Rays • _____________ can cause birth defects • Need to inform Dr.s of pregnancy before x-rays • Including _________ • Doctors will use ______________________________________

  25. Rubella • “German measles” • Occurred several decades ago • Mother’s infection of rubella was passed to baby • Caused: • _____________________ ______________________ • __________is now available, need to check if you had vaccine prior to _____________________

  26. STDs • Can affect unborn babies • Passed from infected mother • Mothers aren’t always aware • Most doctors will test for STDs • Solution for baby’s eyes for _____________ germs that could lead to blindness • Untreated- ___________ _____________________

  27. Specific Cases • ________– no cure, invariably fatal • Spread by unprotected __________________ __________________ • Fetus can contract it through the mother • Can lie hidden for years before causing symptoms • Woman with AIDS- ____________ chance that baby will contract it

  28. Genetic Counseling • Review family medical history • Answer the questions: • What is the chance that this substance or disease will cause a problem? • Is there any special care needed during pregnancy? • Should any special tests be considered?