Earth And Space Science Fall Final Review: 2012
Plants on Earth rely upon this portion of the Sun, which radiates most of the “light” energy. • ANS: Photosphere • 2. By what process does the Sun produce its energy? • ANS: Fusion • 3. What element is the reactant, and what element is the product of this fusion on the Sun? • ANS: reactant = hydrogen; product = helium
4. Put these in order from largest to smallest Solar System Universe Star Galaxy ANS: Universe; Galaxy; Solar System; Star Use the following terms to answer the questions: CMBR Red Shift The Big Bang 5. Offer us evidence that the Universe is expanding ANS: CMBR; Red Shift 6. Most distant light sources from Earth appear red, closer appear toward the blue end of the EM spectrum. ANS: Red Shift 7. Supports the Big Bang Theory of Universe Origins ANS: CMBR
8. One AU is the average distance between Earth and the Sun, which averages to about 149,500,000 km. What is the distance in AUs to Venus, which is 108,000,000 km?(round to nearest hundredth) • ANS: .72 AUs • 9. Newton’s contribution to Kepler’s elliptical orbit theory was… • ANS: Gravity exerted from a spherical object, when added to an orbiting object’s tendency to move in a straight line, will cause said object to travel in an elliptical orbit. • Use the following terms to answer number 10. • Radio Visible Light Ultra Violet Infrared • Microwave Gravity Gamma X-ray • Which of these is NOT from the EM Spectrum? • ANS: Gravity (May use one, more than one, or all)
11. Explain the Solar Nebular theory of planet and solar system formation. ANS: Our solar system formed from a swirling mass of debris leftover from a super nova. This swirling debris differentiated by density, with the densest object at the center (the Sun), and the terrestrial planets accreting closest to it from the other debris, followed by the gas giants farthest from the sun. 12. How do scientists think our moon formed? ANS: Collision with a Mars-sized object 13. When trying to detect extra-solar planets, scientists often use the wiggle-wobble effect. Describe how this is used. ANS: When observing stars that might have planets surrounding them, the star will have a slight wiggle in its supposedly stationary position as the planet passes close to it.
14. What is the difference between a terrestrial and a jovian planet? ANS: A terrestrial planet is dense and rocky, is usually smaller comparatively, and orbits closer to the sun. A jovian planet is a gas giant, and it orbits farther from the sun. 15. Where does most of the atmospheric oxygen on Earth come from? ANS: plants 16. What is the missing gas emitted from volcanoes, and thought to be a part of Earth’s second atmosphere? ANS: CO2
Use the following list to answer the question: a. Comet bombardment b. Collision with Thea c. Cooling surface and torrential rain d. Volcanic Outgassing 17. Origin of our moon ANS: b 18. Origin of our oceans ANS: a, c, and d 19. Origin of Earth’s second atmosphere ANS: d 20. Why have the Earth’s continents moved over geologic time? ANS: Convective energy within the mantle (caused by fission of radioactive materials within the Earth) drive the tectonic plates.
21. Methanogens are extremophiles, able to live in the most inhospitable regions on Earth. They were likely some of the first organisms to evolve on the planet. Their near extinction was caused by what? ANS: The GOE, caused by cyanobacteria producing O2 22. What process was largely responsible for the GOE? ANS: Photosynthesis 23. Earth’s first atmosphere was largely Hydrogen and Helium. Where did it come from? ANS: Gases trapped within the solar nebula forming our solar system.
24. This molecule protects Earth from incoming solar radiation. Its formation made the evolution of life on Earth possible. What is it? ANS: Ozone Use the following terms to answer the questions below: Radioactive Dating Relative Dating 25. Gives you an actual age of a specimen ANS: Radioactive dating 26. Law of Superposition ANS: Relative dating 27. Can be used to determine the age of a specimen ANS: both
28. How can the Law of Inclusions be used to date a piece of quartz that contains tiny pieces of sandstone? ANS: If the sandstone is “INCLUDED” within the quartz, it must be older. 29. What type of dating technique is the above an example of? ANS: Relative 30. Which is the newest addition to the rock layers shown here, and how do you know? ANS: D, because of cross- cutting relationship…it cuts through everything, so it must be newest.
31. Radioactive isotope X is measured in a sample, and found to have lost ¾ its original mass (so ¼ of it remains). How many half-lives have past? ANS: 2 32. What is the general term for this gap in the rock record known as? ANS: an unconformity 33. The rock forming process, whereby layers of sediment become compressed over time is known as ANS: Lithification
Use the following terms/phrases to answer the questions below. copralite transitional fossil mold cast gastrolith amber replacement carbonization igneous inclusions 34. Not a fossil, or a form of fossilization ANS: Igneous inclusion 35. Fossil exhibiting characteristics of two different taxonomic groups. ANS: Transitional Fossil 36. Represents a reproduction of the internal or external features of an organism ANS: Mold 37. You will know exactly what a dinosaur ate by studying these ANS: Copralites,
38. Most of the mass of Earth’s core is made of this substance: ANS: Iron 39. The Earth’s asthenosphere is located here, and is responsible for movements in Earth’s tectonic plates. ANS: D 40. When short wave UV radiation penetrates Earth’s atmosphere, is absorbed by Earth’s surface, and is re-radiated back out into the atmosphere as IR radiation, which is blocked by certain atmospheric gases, this is known as ANS: Greenhouse Effect