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Communication English III
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Communication English III

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  1. Communication English III September 27/28th 2012

  2. Today • Introduction to Task 2. • Survey questions and designing survey questions.

  3. Task 2: Problem and Solution • The topics for Task 2 all represent some kind of problem. • Your initial task is to: • - Construct a survey. • - Test the survey (in-class) • - Administer (do) the survey.

  4. Surveys • Purpose of surveys: • Collect information on a given topic. • Allow you to learn about your target audience: • - What they think - What motivates them - What’s important to them - What they need - What they want

  5. Surveys • Information from a survey allows you to: • - Make decisions on something. • - Set a goal. • - Give direction to further study. • - Identify problems. • - Gather general information on a topic (for various reasons).

  6. Surveys • Use the survey to collect information about peoples’ perceptions of your problem. i.e. Last week you collected info about KMU dormitory rules.

  7. Task 2: Problem and Solution • The topics for Task 2 all represent some kind of problem. • Your initial task is to: • - Construct a survey. • - Test the survey (in-class) • - Administer (do) the survey.

  8. Task 2: Problem and Solution • The next step: • Use the survey results to design interview questions to look deeper into the problem.

  9. Task 2: Problem and Solution • The next step: • Look at the information you have collected and try to suggest a solution(s) to the problem based on your information (peoples’ perceptions of the problem).

  10. Task 2: Problem and Solution • Finally: • Give a “problem and solution” presentation: • - Background information on the problem. • - Results of your survey and interview. • - Suggestion of solution(s).

  11. Task 2: Problem and Solution • As you can see… • …this will take longer than 1 week.

  12. Task 2: Survey • The survey should have 10 – 15 items (questions). • - Any longer than this will give you more information than you can handle.

  13. Making a survey • Step 1: Identify and review the objectives of your study. Task 2 objective: Gather information about peoples’ perceptions of a problem.

  14. Making a survey • Step 2: Brainstorm. • - Isn’t this always the way for every project?! Brainstorm about: - What aspect of the problem you want to examine. - The kinds of questions you want to use. - What you already know about the problem.

  15. Making a survey • Step 3: Plan the survey. • - Like making an outline for an essay. Decide: - Which questions to use and which to cut. - Which questions need to be changed! - Look for potential problems with question design. - The best way to sequence the questions.

  16. Making a survey Are you happy in general? Are you happy at work?

  17. Making a survey • Step 4: Draft the survey. • - Like making a rough draft for an essay. - Create your survey based on your outline.

  18. Making a survey • Step 5: Pilot (test the survey). • - Administer the survey to a few people (sample). Purpose:

  19. Purpose of Pilot study • Developing and testing adequacy of research instruments • Assessing the feasibility of a (full-scale) study/survey • Designing a research protocol • Assessing whether the research protocol is realistic and workable • Establishing whether the sampling frame and technique are effective • Assessing the likely success of proposed recruitment approaches • Identifying logistical problems which might occur using proposed methods • Estimating variability in outcomes to help determining sample size • Collecting preliminary data • Determining what resources (finance, staff) are needed for a planned study • Assessing the proposed data analysis techniques to uncover potential problems • Developing a research question and research plan • Training a researcher in as many elements of the research process as possible • Convincing funding bodies that the research team is competent and knowledgeable • Convincing funding bodies that the main study is feasible and worth funding • Convincing other stakeholders that the main study is worth supporting

  20. Making a survey • Step 5: Pilot (test the survey). • - Administer the survey to a few people (sample). Purpose (for us): - To make sure the questions make sense to participants. - To make sure the survey is not biased.

  21. Making a survey • Step 6: Make the final survey • - Based on the results of the pilot study.

  22. Question types • Closed questions • Open-ended questions

  23. Open-ended Questions What’s your favorite color? What do you think about the KMU dorm rules?

  24. Closed Questions What’s your favorite color? a. red b. yellow c. black Rate your opinion of the KMU dorm rules. 1 – very strict 2 – somewhat strict 3 – no opinion 4 – somewhat lenient 5 – very lenient

  25. Good vs. Bad Survey Questions • When was the last time you upgraded your computer and printer? Double Barreled Questions • Questions that cover more than one topic. • Usually contains “AND” or “OR” • Can be confusing for the respondent and to the researcher (you).

  26. Good vs. Bad Survey Questions • When was the last time you upgraded your computer and printer? Double Barreled Questions Solution: • Try to eliminate the less important topic. • Create two questions.

  27. Good vs. Bad Survey Questions • When was the last time you upgraded your computer and printer? Double Barreled Questions Solution: • When was the last time you upgraded your computer? • 1. When was the last time you upgraded your computer? 2. When was the last time you upgraded your printer?

  28. Good vs. Bad Survey Questions • Now that you’ve seen how you can save time with this product, would you buy it? Leading Questions • Suggests to the respondent that the researcher expects or desires a certain answer. • - Here, by that the product is good, the researcher has “tipped” the respondent (wants a “yes” response).

  29. Good vs. Bad Survey Questions • Community organizing is difficult. Do leadership trainings help you feel prepared for community organizing? Leading Questions • Solution: • Construct the question to be neutral. • Would you buy this product? • How likely are you to buy this product?

  30. Good vs. Bad Survey Questions • Do you approve of the President’s oppressive immigration policy? Loaded Questions • Questions that ask respondents to rely on emotions more than facts. • Contains “emotive” words with positive or negative connotations. • i.e.) oppressive, terrible, fantastic, helpful. • These “charged terms” can influence peoples’ reactions.

  31. Good vs. Bad Survey Questions • Do you approve of the President’s oppressive immigration policy? Loaded Questions • Solution: • Remove the emotive words (again, be neutral). • Do you approve of the President’s immigration policy?

  32. Good vs. Bad Survey Questions • If you were in a foreign country and did not speak the language but knew someone who did would you: a. Let the person that spoke the language speak for you? b. Try to learn the language on your own? c. Not try to learn the language or let the person that you knew that spoke the language speak Overly Complex Questions

  33. Good vs. Bad Survey Questions Overly Complex Questions - Survey questions should be easily understood. • This question is long and has multiple parts. • Often contain “AND” “OR” “BUT” • These questions can create risk of: • - Frustrated respondents. • - Incorrect responses. • - Loss of respondents.

  34. Good vs. Bad Survey Questions Overly Complex Questions - Solution Make it less complicated. Remove the question

  35. Good vs. Bad Survey Questions • What is your current age? Response Options Not Exhaustive • Options do not allow for all possible responses. • Can make your results less valid.

  36. Good vs. Bad Survey Questions • What is your current age? Response Options Not Exhaustive • Solutions • Add more options to your question. • Add an “other” option.

  37. Good vs. Bad Survey Questions • What is your current age? Response Options Not Exhaustive • Solutions • What is your current age?a. 10 to 20 b. 21 to 30 c. 31 to 40 d. 41 to 50 e. 51 to 60 f. • What is your current age?a. 10 to 20 b. 21 to 30 c. 31 to 40 d. Above 40 (or Other)

  38. Good vs. Bad Survey Questions • What is your current age? Response Options Not Mutually Exclusive • Closed-ended questions require response options that are mutually exclusive (each reply excludes the possibility of other replies).

  39. Good vs. Bad Survey Questions • What is your current age? Response Options Not Mutually Exclusive • Solution • Make the possible responses mutually exclusive • What is your current age? a. 10 or less b. 11 to 20 c. 21 to 30 d. 31 or greater

  40. Good vs. Bad Survey Questions • Are most of your professors liberal? Asking for What Respondents Don’t Know • Only ask for information that respondents could have knowledge of: • - Themselves - Perceptions, opinions, behaviors, experiences, etc. • Asking them to interpret others’ beliefs, opinions, motives can create problems.

  41. Good vs. Bad Survey Questions • Are most of your professors liberal? Asking for What Respondents Don’t Know • Solutions: • ASK THE PROFESSORS. • (create a separate survey).

  42. Good vs. Bad Survey Questions • Does it seem possible or does it seem impossible to you that Dok-do does not belong to Korea? Double Negative • Questions that are worded with two (or more) negative words. • Confuses respondents (see “complex questions)

  43. Good vs. Bad Survey Questions • Does it seem possible or does it seem impossible to you that Dok-do does not belong to Korea? Double Negative • Solutions: Include only one negative (or none, if possible). Do you think Dok-do belongs to Korea or not? Very possible possible improbable impossible

  44. Before next class • Brainstorm and create a rough draft of your survey. • Bring to next class.