15 Oct • In unit 2 we said that life on earth requires energy input from the sun. How is the sun’s energy converted to a form that organisms can use? • Agenda • Unit 2 feedback • Unit 3 Calendar • Van Helmont • Intro Photosynthesis • Homework • Section 3.8
Unit 2 feedback • Did you think the Unit 2 exam was fair? Why or why not? • What was the hardest part of the Unit 2 test? • If you aren’t happy with your current grade, what can/ will you do differently this unit? • Do you have any suggestions as to how we can make the course better? • Take out a sheet of paper, and answer the following…
Photosynthesis Light Carbon Dioxide + Water Sugar + Oxygen Light CO2 + H2O + C6H12O6 + O2 Draw a picture of this on a white board
Light Build Sugar PHOTOSYNTHESIS Light Reactions Calvin Cycle
Photosynthesis Makes glucose for the plant
16 Oct • Opening: • Where in a plant cell does photosynthesis occur? • Agenda • Light Reactions & Calvin Cycle • Critique Tomato Experiment • Design Spinach Photosynthesis Experiment • Homework • none
Light Build Sugar PHOTOSYNTHESIS Calvin Cycle Light Reactions
Light Reactions • Chlorophyll captures a photon of light and uses it to excite an electron. • That high-energy electron is used to make high-energy molecules that run the Calvin Cycle. • Water is split (releasing O2)to provide more electrons to continue the process.
Calvin Cycle • Carbon dioxide + the high energy molecules from the light reactions are used to create a simple sugar. • The plant uses that simple sugar to: • Power its cells • Build structures (roots, stems, leaves) • Store energy
Photosynthesis Lab- How to • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZnY9_wMZZWI
17 Oct • Opening: • What does a plant do with the sugar that it makes? • Agenda • Design/ Conduct Spinach Photosynthesis Experiment • Homework • Photosynthesis participation quiz tomorrow
18 Oct • Opening: • Take out a ½ sheet of paper • Agenda • Participation quiz • Conduct Photosynthesis Experiment • Finish Lab write-up • Homework • Finish Lab write-up
19 Oct • Opening: • What is chlorophyll’s role in photosynthesis? • Agenda • Wrap-up Lab • Participation Activities • Homework • Read page 122
Participation Quiz • Write the overall reaction for photosynthesis (word or chemical) (5) • What are the two stages of photosynthesis? (2) • What are the outputs of the 1st stage? (2) • What are the outputs of the 2nd stage? (2)
Participation Quiz • Write the overall reaction for photosynthesis (word or chemical) (5) Carbon Dioxide + Water+ Light Glucose + Oxygen 2. What are the two stages of photosynthesis? (2) Light Reactions & Calvin Cycle 3. What are the outputs of the 1st stage? (2) High Energy Molecules + Oxygen 4. What are the outputs of the 2nd stage? (2) Low energy Molecules + Simple sugar
Participation Activities:You have to do one of the following for 10 part. pts. You can then do the other for 5 extra credit pts. • Read the “Chlorophyll f” article and complete the back of the sheet. and/or • Do the Photosynthesis Drawing
22 Oct • Opening: • Agenda • Collect: • Photosynthesis Lab • Participation assignment • Extra Credit • Intro Cellular Respiration • Cellular Respiration Demo • Homework • 3.11 + GQs
Cellular Respiration Glucose + Oxygen Carbon Dioxide + Water + Energy (ATP) C6H12O6 + O2 CO2 + H2O + Energy (ATP) Occurs in and around mitochondria
Mitochondria are everywhere animal cells plant cells
What is energy in biology? ATP Adenosine TriPhosphate
Using ATP to do work ATP • Can’t store ATP • too unstable • only used in cell that produces it • only short term energy storage • carbohydrates & fats are long term energy storage work Adenosine TriPhosphate Adenosine DiPhosphate ADP A working muscle recycles over 10 million ATPs per second
23 Oct • Agenda: • Stages of Respiration • Homework: • Read 3.13-3.14 + GQs
A track athlete finds that during her 1 mile-races she always “dies” in last lap. (1 mile = 4 laps around the track) While walking around the mall with some friends she sees a vendor selling bottles of pure ATP. Interested, she starts to talk to the vendor. He tells her, • “You get tired because her body is busy making ATP. If you take this pure ATP, your cells won’t have to go through respiration, and you’ll have more energy to finish your race. It’s totally legal because your body makes it naturally.” • She thinks back to what she learned in biology class, and his explanation seems to make sense to her, but she’s hesitant. • Think about what you learned in Biology class and answer the following. • Do you think the stuff will work? Explain. • Do you think she should buy the bottle? Why or why not?
Glycolysis • Sugar is split, releasing a little ATP and two pyruvate molecules that enter the Krebs Cycle. • Takes place outside the mitochondria. • Does not require Oxygen.
Krebs Cycle • The products from glycolysis (pyruvate) go through a series of reactions • These reactions release • CO2 • a little ATP • high energy electrons After Krebs Cycle, all the Carbon from sugar has been converted to CO2
Electron Transport Chain • A series of reactions that use high-energy electrons from glycolysis and Krebs • Only works if Oxygen is present • Releases H2O & a lot of ATP
C6H12O6 + O2CO2 + H2O + Energy (ATP) -From Glucose -Released during Krebs -From O2 -Released during ETC Released from glycolysis, Krebs, & ETC
24 Oct • Agenda: • Fermentation • Review • Homework: • Quiz Tomorrow
O2 What if oxygen is missing? • No oxygen available = can’t complete aerobic respiration • Anaerobic respiration • also known as fermentation • alcohol fermentation • lactic acid fermentation • can only make very little ATP • large animals cannot survive yeast bacteria
O2 Anaerobic Respiration • Fermentation • alcohol fermentation • yeast • glucose ATP + CO2+ alcohol • make beer, wine, bread • lactic acid fermentation • bacteria, animals • glucose ATP + lactic acid • bacteria make yogurt • Animal muscle cells go through L.A. fermentation, but brain cells can’t.
Practice short answer questions • Explain how photosynthesis and respiration are related. • Respiration and photosynthesis are related in that the outputs from one process are used as the inputs for the other. Photosynthesis uses the CO2 and H20 from cellular respiration to make glucose and O2 which, in turn is used to drive Cellular respiration. • Explain why it is not enough for organisms to eat food in order to function. Why do we need to go through the process of Cellular Respiration? • Our cells cannot directly use the food we eat to complete cellular functions. Our cells rely on ATP to act as the energy molecule that drives cellular function. Cellular respiration uses the energy in food to create ATP for our cells to use.
25 Oct • Agenda: • Photosynthesis/ Respiration Formative quiz • Homework: • Quarter exam Monday
26 Oct • Agenda: • Review for Quarter Exam • Homework: • Quarter Exam Monday
29 Oct • Opener • Agenda • 1st Quarter Exam • Homework: • None
30 Nov • Is this an alligator or a crocodile? • Agenda • Most Missed Questions • Food webs and Chains • Homework • Section 3.7
Do any of these vocab. terms look familiar? • Autotroph • Heterotroph • Trophic Level • Producer • Consumer • Decomposer • Herbivore • Carnivore • Omnivore • Organism • Population • Community • Food Chain • Food Web • Food Pyramid • Limiting factor