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Oct. 15, 2018 PowerPoint Presentation
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Oct. 15, 2018

Oct. 15, 2018

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Oct. 15, 2018

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  1. Oct. 15, 2018 You need: Clean paper / pencil Mitosis chart (from Wednesday) Warm Up: What are the phases of mitosis? (repeat question) I CAN: demonstrate the phases (and functions of each phase) of mitosis.

  2. Housework • Warm Up • Review • Mnemonic device • Puzzle of meiosis • Compare the two

  3. MITOSIS

  4. Starting point: You want to start with one cell that has 100% of the genetic information (like a normal body cell). To keep things simple, we will work with a cell that has 4 chromosomes in a normal body cell.

  5. Your goal: To create TWO cells that each have 100% of the genetic information. These would have FOUR chromosomes each…and look just like the original.

  6. START Anaphase Interphase Prophase centromere Telophase Sister chromatids Metaphase Daughter Cells Cytokinesis

  7. Did you reach the goal? Two cells and each has exactly 100% of the genetic material? Is the genetic material the same in these cells? Is that good or bad? Why?

  8. Mitosis – from the Amoeba sisters • Watch this YouTube video from a group that call themselves the Amoeba sisters!

  9. Inside the nucleus, are CHROMOSOMES. CHROMOSOMES small packages of DNA DNA comes from both your mom and your dad.

  10. Chromosomes contain the genetic material of an organism. This genetic material is organized into packets of information called genes. Genes give the instructions for an organism’s traits or physical features. Chromosome = a package of genetic information that can be passed from parent to offspring. GENE: info from Mom about eye color AND from Dad about a trait (like eye color).

  11. How do little elephants grow up to be BIG elephants?

  12. Why do animals shed their skin?

  13. The process of asexual reproduction begins after a sperm fertilizes an egg.

  14. Three reasons why cells reproduce by asexual reproduction: 1. Growth 2. Repair 3. Replacement

  15. Animated Mitosis Cycle http://www.cellsalive.com/mitosis.htm • Interphase • Prophase • Metaphase • Anaphase • Telophase & Cytokinesis

  16. Animal Mitosis -- Review

  17. Plant Mitosis -- Review

  18. On your notes (this page), DRAW in the chromosomes using colored pencils. • Be consistent – use the same TWO colors so you can follow the movements and changes. • Describe what is happening in each picture. The slides will help you explain.

  19. Interphase • Description of events: • Centriole pair replicates. • DNA replicates to create duplicated chromosomes. • Most of the cell’s life is spent in INTERPHASE Notice: This drawing uses blue and red, but you may use ANY two colors – just keep the same colors for the rest of the phase, too.

  20. Interphase Plant Cell Animal Cell Photographs from: http://www.bioweb.uncc.edu/biol1110/Stages.htm

  21. Prophase • Description of events: • Centriole pair begins to migrate to opposite poles. • Nuclear membrane begins to dissolve. • Spindle fibers begin to form between centriole pairs. • Duplicated chromosomes begin to condense. • Nucleolus begins to disappear.

  22. Prophase Plant Cell Animal Cell Spindle fibers Centrioles Photographs from: http://www.bioweb.uncc.edu/biol1110/Stages.htm

  23. Metaphase • Description of events: • Centriole pairs are fully migrated to opposite poles. • The spindle apparatus is fully formed. • Spindle fibers have moved the duplicated chromosomes so that they line up at the midline of the cell. • Nuclear membrane has completely disappeared. • Duplicated chromosomes are at their most condensed at this stage.

  24. Metaphase Plant Cell Animal Cell Photographs from: http://www.bioweb.uncc.edu/biol1110/Stages.htm

  25. Anaphase • Description of events: • Spindle fibers pull the sister chromatids apart at the centromere and drag them to opposite poles. • The cell elongates (gets longer – like an oval)

  26. Anaphase Plant Cell Animal Cell Photographs from: http://www.bioweb.uncc.edu/biol1110/Stages.htm

  27. Description of events: • The cell begins cytokinesis by forming a cleavage furrow (pinch) to divide the cytoplasm. • Nuclear membranes begin to reform around the separate (but identical) sets of chromosomes. • Spindle apparatus has disassembled and the spindle fibers dissolve. • Chromosomes begin to de-condense. • Nucleolus begins to re-form. Telophase

  28. Telophase Plant Cell Animal Cell Photographs from: http://www.bioweb.uncc.edu/biol1110/Stages.htm

  29. Description of events: • The two identical daughter cells are completely separated. • Spindle fibers have completely disappeared. • The chromosomes are completely de-condensed and lengthened. • The nucleolus is very distinct. • The nuclear membrane has completely re-formed around the chromosomes. After cytokinesis

  30. Check over your work!!

  31. Interphase • Description of events: • Centriole pair replicates. • DNA replicates to create duplicated chromosomes. • Most of the cell’s life is spent in INTERPHASE • Description of events: • Spindle fibers pull the sister chromatids apart at the centromere and drag them to opposite poles. • The cell elongates (gets longer – like an oval) Anaphase Prophase Telophase • Description of events: • The cell begins cytokinesis by forming a cleavage furrow (pinch) to divide the cytoplasm. • Nuclear membranes begin to reform around the separate (but identical) sets of chromosomes. • Spindle apparatus has disassembled and the spindle fibers dissolve. • Chromosomes begin to de-condense. • Nucleolus begins to re-form. • Description of events: • Centriole pair begins to migrate to opposite poles. • Nuclear membrane begins to dissolve. • Spindle fibers begin to form between centriole pairs. • Duplicated chromosomes begin to condense. • Nucleolus begins to disappear. • Description of events: • Centriole pairs are fully migrated to opposite poles. • The spindle apparatus is fully formed. • Spindle fibers have moved the duplicated chromosomes so that they line up at the midline of the cell. • Nuclear membrane has completely disappeared. • Duplicated chromosomes are at their most condensed at this stage. Metaphase • Description of events: • The two identical daughter cells are completely separated. • Spindle fibers have completely disappeared. • The chromosomes are completely de-condensed and lengthened. • The nucleolus is very distinct. • The nuclear membrane has completely re-formed around the chromosomes. After cytokinesis

  32. Mitosis Hand Jive! • Here are two videos that explain the hand motions used to represent phases of mitosis. Watch them both!!! Bill Ry the science guy EXPLAINS the hand signals. Ms. Loree dances through the mitosis hand signals.

  33. Mnemonic Device • Sometimes it helps us to remember things if we put it into a song, or hand signals, or a crazy sentence. • You may have used “Please Excuse My Dear Aunt Sally.” The first letter of each word matches the steps in the order of operations (parentheses, exponents, multiply/divide, add/subtract). • Come up with a Mnemonic Device using the letters of the phases of mitosis (IPMATC). Turn it in through Google Classroom

  34. IPMATC REMEMBER! • Interphase • Prophase • Metaphase • Anaphase • Telophase • Cytokinesis Iguanas Pee More Accurately Than Cats.

  35. Igloos Predict Meteorites Aiming To California (CCC) • In Private, My Alligator Takes Candy (JCT) • It (Pennywise’s) Poop Make All-powerful Thanos Cry (ME) • Internet Posts Makes Anyone Talk Crazy (MH) • I Prefer My Alligator To Cats (HM) • I Play Music At The Church (IP) • I Play Music At The Carnival (ER) • I Park My Aunt’s Tall Car (MW) • Invisible People Maybe Ate The Chicken (AAG) • In People’s Mind A Telophone Crings (JAS) • I Pee More At The Televised Church (AB) • I Party Max At The Club (JB) • I Picked My Apples To Count (AB) • Ice cream Probably Makes Animals Talk Crazy (TC) • Insect Pajamas Make A Tiger Cry (TR) • I Peel More Apples Than Clark. (KT)

  36. Mitosis QUIZ! • Clear away your notes. NOTHING out except clean, empty notebook paper and a pencil. • You will need to find the best answer – without using notes, books, or neighbors. • Be sure to fill in all that you can. Talking/communicating with others will be a zero!

  37. 5. What phase of MITOSIS is the cell below in?

  38. MITOSIS MEIOSIS

  39. PUZZLE TIME!! MEIOSIS

  40. Starting point: You want to start with one cell that has 100% of the genetic information (like a normal body cell). To keep things simple, we will work with a cell that has 4 chromosomes in a normal body cell.

  41. Your goal: To create FOUR cells that only have 50% of the genetic information. These would only have TWO chromosomes (NOT 4).

  42. Cut and arrange • Cut along the dotted lines. They are all squares or rectangles – so it should be easy to maintain a straight, neat line. • Be aware – safety is always a concern with scissors. It would awful to try to do this without scissors as a tool. Keep safety first!! • Do NOT glue – until the class has agreed on the order of the pieces.

  43. Puzzle check • Knowing if you have the right process is tricky. Let’s try watching the steps. • Cells Alive! (meiosis)

  44. Starting point: You want to start with one cell that has 100% of the genetic information (like a normal body cell). To keep things simple, we will work with a cell that has 4 chromosomes in a normal body cell.

  45. After we start… Before we can split to smaller groups, we need to copy the information. This reminds me of mitosis!

  46. Once copies have been secured (copy and original are sticking together!), then we line them up… Metaphase

  47. After lining up in the MIDDLE, we have to split. This is different than MITOSIS, though. How? In MITOSIS, the chromosomes line up in the middle vertically and all four would split in half. But in MEIOSIS, they have split the total in half – not the chromosome and it’s copy!

  48. After the ONE nucleus splits into TWO nuclei, we still need to split the original chromosome from it’s copy.

  49. Lining up in the MIDDLE – like Metaphase…AGAIN!! This time they are ready to separate the original chromosome and it’s copy.

  50. Each chromosome (copy and original is separated. Now the TWO look like they are becoming FOUR.