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Scalable Methods for Graph-Based Unsupervised and Semi-Supervised Learning

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Scalable Methods for Graph-Based Unsupervised and Semi-Supervised Learning

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  1. Scalable Methods for Graph-Based Unsupervised and Semi-Supervised Learning Frank Lin Language Technologies Institute School of Computer Science Carnegie Mellon University PhD Thesis Proposal October 8, 2010, Pittsburgh, PA, USA Thesis Committee William W. Cohen (Chair), Christos Faloutsos, Tom Mitchell, Xiaojin Zhu

  2. Motivation And some of them very big • Graph data is everywhere • We want to do machine learning on them • For non-graph data, often it makes sense to represent them as graphs for unsupervised and semi-supervised learning Often require a similarity measure between data points – naturally represented as edges between nodes

  3. Motivation • We want to do clustering and semi-supervised learning on large graphs • We need scalable methods that provide quality results

  4. Thesis Goal • Make contributions toward fast, space-efficient, effective, and simple graph-based learning methods that scale up to large datasets.

  5. Road Map

  6. Road Map Prior Work Proposed Work

  7. Talk Outline • Prior Work • Power Iteration Clustering (PIC) • PIC with Path Folding • MultiRankWalk (MRW) • Proposed Work • MRW with Path Folding • MRW for Populating a Web-Scale Knowledge Base • Noun Phrase Categorization • PIC for Extending a Web-Scale Knowledge Base • Learning Synonym NP’s • Learning Polyseme NP’s • Finding New Ontology Types and Relations • PIC Extensions • Distributed Implementations

  8. Power Iteration Clustering • Spectral clustering methods are nice, and natural choice for graph data • But they are rather expensive (slow) Power iteration clustering (PIC) can provide a similar solution at a very low cost (fast)!

  9. Background: Spectral Clustering • Idea: instead of clustering data points in their original (Euclidean) space, cluster them in the space spanned by the “significant” eigenvectors of a (Laplacian) similarity matrix A popular spectral clustering method: normalized cuts (NCut)

  10. Background: Spectral Clustering dataset and normalized cut results 2 cluster 3 1 clustering space 2nd smallest eigenvector value index 3rd smallest eigenvector

  11. Background: Spectral Clustering Finding eigenvectors and eigenvalues of a matrix is very slow in general • Normalized Cut algorithm (Shi & Malik 2000): • Choose kand similarity function s • DeriveAfrom s, let W=I-D-1A, where Iis the identity matrix and Dis a diagonal square matrix Dii=Σj Aij • Find eigenvectors and corresponding eigenvalues of W • Pick the keigenvectors of Wwith the 2ndtokthsmallest corresponding eigenvalues as “significant” eigenvectors • Project the data points onto the space spanned by these vectors • Run k-means on the projected data points Can we find a similar low-dimensional embedding for clustering without eigenvectors?

  12. The Power Iteration • Or the power method, is a simple iterative method for finding the dominant eigenvector of a matrix: Typically converges quickly; fairly efficient if W is a sparse matrix vt : the vector at iteration t; v0 typically a random vector c : a normalizing constant to keep vt from getting too large or too small W : a square matrix

  13. The Power Iteration • Or the power method, is a simple iterative method for finding the dominant eigenvector of a matrix: Row-normalized similarity matrix What if we let W=D-1A (like Normalized Cut)?

  14. The Power Iteration

  15. Power Iteration Clustering • The 2nd to ktheigenvectors of W=D-1A are roughly piece-wise constant with respect to the underlying clusters, each separating a cluster from the rest of the data (Meila & Shi 2001) • The linear combination of piece-wise constant vectors is also piece-wise constant!

  16. Spectral Clustering dataset and normalized cut results 2 cluster 3 1 clustering space 2nd smallest eigenvector value index 3rd smallest eigenvector

  17. + b· =

  18. Power Iteration Clustering dataset and PIC results Key idea: to do clustering, we may not need all the information in a full spectral embedding (e.g., distance between clusters in a k-dimension eigenspace) vt we just need the clusters to be separated in some space.

  19. When to Stop Recall: At the beginning, v changes fast (“accelerating”) to converge locally due to “noise terms” (k+1…n) with small λ Then: When “noise terms” have gone to zero, v changes slowly (“constant speed”) because only larger λterms (2…k) are left, where the eigenvalue ratios are close to 1 Because they are raised to the power t, the eigenvalue ratios determines how fast v converges to e1

  20. Power Iteration Clustering • A basic power iteration clustering (PIC) algorithm: • Input: A row-normalized affinity matrix W and the number of clusters k • Output: Clusters C1, C2, …, Ck • Pick an initial vector v0 • Repeat • Set vt+1← Wvt • Set δt+1 ← |vt+1 – vt| • Increment t • Stop when |δt – δt-1| ≈ 0 • Use k-means to cluster points on vt and return clusters C1, C2, …, Ck

  21. PIC Runtime Normalized Cut, faster implementation Normalized Cut Ran out of memory (24GB)

  22. PIC Accuracy on Network Datasets Upper triangle: PIC does better Lower triangle: NCut or NJW does better

  23. Talk Outline • Prior Work • Power Iteration Clustering (PIC) • PIC with Path Folding • MultiRankWalk (MRW) • Proposed Work • MRW with Path Folding • MRW for Populating a Web-Scale Knowledge Base • Noun Phrase Categorization • PIC for Extending a Web-Scale Knowledge Base • Learning Synonym NP’s • Learning Polyseme NP’s • Finding New Ontology Types and Relations • PIC Extensions • Distributed Implementations

  24. Clustering Text Data • Spectral clustering methods are nice • We want to use them for clustering text data (A lot of)

  25. The Problem with Text Data • Documents are often represented as feature vectors of words: The importance of a Web page is an inherently subjective matter, which depends on the readers… In this paper, we present Google, a prototype of a large-scale search engine which makes heavy use… You're not cool just because you have a lot of followers on twitter, get over yourself…

  26. The Problem with Text Data • Feature vectors are often sparse • But similarity matrix is not! Mostly non-zero - any two documents are likely to have a word in common Mostly zeros - any document contains only a small fraction of the vocabulary

  27. In general O(n3); approximation methods still not very fast The Problem with Text Data • A similarity matrix is the input to many clustering methods, including spectral clustering • Spectral clustering requires the computation of the eigenvectors of a similarity matrix of the data Too expensive! Does not scale up to big datasets! O(n2) time to construct O(n2) space to store > O(n2) time to operate on

  28. The Problem with Text Data • We want to use the similarity matrix for clustering (like spectral clustering), but: • Without calculating eigenvectors • Without constructing or storing the similarity matrix Power Iteration Clustering + Path Folding

  29. Path Folding Okay, we have a fast clustering method – but there’s the W that requires O(n2) storage space and construction and operation time! • A basic power iteration clustering (PIC) algorithm: • Input: A row-normalized affinity matrix W and the number of clusters k • Output:Clusters C1, C2, …, Ck • Pick an initial vector v0 • Repeat • Set vt+1← Wvt • Set δt+1 ← |vt+1 – vt| • Increment t • Stop when |δt – δt-1| ≈ 0 • Use k-means to cluster points on vt and return clusters C1, C2, …, Ck Key operation in PIC Note: matrix-vector multiplication!

  30. Path Folding And these are sparse! Well, not if this matrix is dense… • What’s so good about matrix-vector multiplication? • If we can decompose the matrix… • Then we arrive at the same solution doing a series of matrix-vector multiplications! Isn’t this more expensive?

  31. Path Folding • As long as we can decompose the matrix into a series of sparse matrices, we can turn a dense matrix-vector multiplication into a series of sparse matrix-vector multiplications. This is exactly the case for text data This means that we can turn an operation that requires O(n2) storage and runtime into one that requires O(n) storage and runtime! And many other kinds of data as well!

  32. Path Folding • Example – inner product similarity: Diagonal matrix that normalizes W so rows sum to 1 The original feature matrix The feature matrix transposed Construction: given Storage: O(n) Construction: given Storage: just use F Storage: n

  33. Okay…how about a similarity function we actually use for text data? Path Folding • Example – inner product similarity: Construction: O(n) Storage: O(n) Operation: O(n) • Iteration update:

  34. Path Folding Diagonal cosine normalizing matrix • Example – cosine similarity: Construction: O(n) Storage: O(n) Operation: O(n) • Iteration update: Compact storage: we don’t need a cosine-normalized version of the feature vectors

  35. Path Folding • We refer to this technique as path foldingdue to its connections to “folding” a bipartite graph into a unipartite graph.

  36. Results Diagonal: tied (most datasets) • An accuracy result: Upper triangle: we win No statistically significant difference – same accuracy Each point is accuracy for a 2-cluster text dataset Lower triangle: spectral clustering wins

  37. Results y: algorithm runtime (log scale) Spectral clustering (red & blue) • A scalability result: Quadratic curve Linear curve x: data size (log scale) Our method (green)

  38. Talk Outline • Prior Work • Power Iteration Clustering (PIC) • PIC with Path Folding • MultiRankWalk (MRW) • Proposed Work • MRW with Path Folding • MRW for Populating a Web-Scale Knowledge Base • Noun Phrase Categorization • PIC for Extending a Web-Scale Knowledge Base • Learning Synonym NP’s • Learning Polyseme NP’s • Finding New Ontology Types and Relations • PIC Extensions • Distributed Implementations

  39. MultiRankWalk • Classification labels are expensive to obtain • Semi-supervised learning (SSL) learns from labeled and unlabeled data for classification • When it comes to network data, what is a general, simple, and effective method that requires very few labels? Our Answer: MultiRankWalk (MRW)

  40. Random Walk with Restart • Imagine a network, and starting at a specific node, you follow the edges randomly. • But with some probability, you “jump” back to the starting node (restart!). If you recorded the number of times you land on each node, what would that distribution look like?

  41. Random Walk with Restart What if we start at a different node? Start node

  42. Random Walk with Restart • The walk distribution r satisfies a simple equation: Start node(s) Transition matrix of the network Restart probability “Keep-going” probability (damping factor)

  43. Random Walk with Restart • Random walk with restart (RWR) can be solved simply and efficiently with an iterative procedure:

  44. RWR for Classification • Simple idea: use RWR for classification RWR with start nodes being labeled points in class A RWR with start nodes being labeled points in class B Nodes frequented more by RWR(A) belongs to class A, otherwise they belong to B

  45. Results Upper triangle: MRW better With larger # of labels, both methods do well Accuracy: MRW vs. harmonic functions method (HF) MRW does much better with only a few labels! Lower triangle: MRW better Point color & style roughly indicates # of labeled examples

  46. Results • How much better is MRW using authoritative seed preference? y-axis: MRW F1 score minus wvRN F1 x-axis: number of seed labels per class The gap between MRW and wvRN narrows with authoritative seeds, but they are still prominent on some datasets with small number of seed labels

  47. Talk Outline • Prior Work • Power Iteration Clustering (PIC) • PIC with Path Folding • MultiRankWalk (MRW) • Proposed Work • MRW with Path Folding • MRW for Populating a Web-Scale Knowledge Base • Noun Phrase Categorization • PIC for Extending a Web-Scale Knowledge Base • Learning Synonym NP’s • Learning Polyseme NP’s • Finding New Ontology Types and Relations • PIC Extensions • Distributed Implementations

  48. MRW with Path Folding • MRW is based on random walk with restart (RWR): Most other methods preprocess the induced graph data to create a sparse similarity matrix “Path folding” can be applied to MRW as well to efficiently learn from induced graph data! Core operation: matrix-vector multiplication Can also be applied to iterative implementations of the harmonic functions method

  49. On to real, large, difficult applications… • We now have a basic set of tools to do efficient unsupervised and semi-supervised learning on graph data • We want to apply to cool, challenging problems…

  50. Talk Outline • Prior Work • Power Iteration Clustering (PIC) • PIC with Path Folding • MultiRankWalk (MRW) • Proposed Work • MRW with Path Folding • MRW for Populating a Web-Scale Knowledge Base • Noun Phrase Categorization • PIC for Extending a Web-Scale Knowledge Base • Learning Synonym NP’s • Learning Polyseme NP’s • Finding New Ontology Types and Relations • PIC Extensions • Distributed Implementations