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Agents of Erosion Notes

Agents of Erosion Notes

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Agents of Erosion Notes

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  1. Agents of Erosion Notes

  2. Erosion Caused by…Running Water Erosion is… The process by which soil & sediment are transported from one location to another. The running water of the Colorado River cut down into the rock and formed the Grand Canyon over millions of years.

  3. Flood Control (Levee) Overflow from rivers/streams (running water) can be controlled by a barrier called a _____________. It is the buildup of sediment deposited along the channel of a river. People often use sandbags to build an artificial levee to control serious flooding. Levee

  4. Deposition in Water (Delta) Deposition is… The process in which material is laid down or dropped. When a river empties into a large body of water, like a lake or an ocean, the current slows. The river often deposits its load of sediments in a fan-shaped pattern called a ________. It is made mostly of ___________. delta mud

  5. Deposition on LAND (Alluvial Fan) When a fast moving mountain stream flows onto a flat plain, the stream slows down and deposits sediment. The sediment forms an ____________________. They form on __________ whereas deltas form in the mouth of a _________ or ____________. Alluvial fan Dry land stream river

  6. Erosion Caused by WAVES waves When ________ crash into rocks over long periods of time, the rocks are broken down into smaller and smaller pieces until they become sand. Waves play a major role in building up (constructive) and breaking down (destructive) the _____________________. shoreline

  7. Erosion Caused by WAVES hurricanes Winds that result from _____________ and ____________________ produce large waves that cause dramatic shoreline erosion. A tremendous amount of ____________ is released when waves break. A crashing wave can break solid rock and throw broken rocks back against the shore. As a result of these actions, rock is broken down into smaller pieces that eventually become ______________. Severe storms energy sand

  8. Erosion Caused by WAVES Some coastal landforms created by wave erosion are: • Sea stacks • Sea arches • Sea caves • Headlands • Wave-cut terraces

  9. WIND Erosion Wind causes sand-sized particles to bounce and move the sand grains into one another. The skipping and bouncing movement of sand-sized particles in the direction the wind is blowing is called _____________. Wind can deposit extremely fine material. Thick deposits of this sediment are called _________. The wind can carry this fine material long distances from its source. saltation loess

  10. WIND Erosion When wind hits obstacles, like _________, or rocks, the wind slows down. This slows down erosion. These obstacles cause heavier material (like sand) to be deposited (constructive) forming a _____________. These mounds of wind-deposited sand are called _____________. plants mound dunes

  11. ICE & GLACIER Erosion glacier A ___________ is an enormous mass of moving ice. They form in areas that are so cold that snow stays on the ground year-round. Because glaciers are so massive, ____________ causes them to flow slowly. gravity

  12. ICE & GLACIER Erosion valley A ___________ glacier (a type of alpine glacier) forms in valleys in mountainous areas created by ________ erosion. They flow downhill and widen and straighten the valleys into _____ shapes from the original ______ shapes. stream U V

  13. ICE & GLACIER Erosion Continental glaciers are huge continuous masses of ________. The largest continental glacier in the world covers almost all of __________________. These glaciers ___________ the landscape by scraping and eroding features that were around before the ice appeared. They can flatten mountains. Ice Antarctica smooth

  14. Erosion caused by GRAVITY Movement of water and ice is affected by __________, and it also causes rocks and soil to move downslope. Sometimes gravity causes rapid mass movement of rock that can be the most ________________ and very dangerous. gravity destructive

  15. Erosion caused by GRAVITY Rock-fall A __________ happens when loose rocks fall down a steep slope. A __________ is the sudden and rapid movement of a large amount of material downslope. A ________ is the most common type of landslide. This happens when a block of material moves downslope over a ____________ surface. landslide slump curved

  16. Erosion caused by Gravity mudflow A ______________ is a rapid movement of a large mass of mud. This happens when a large amount of water mixes with soil and rock. Mudflows (destructive) can carry trees, houses, and cars. Slow mass movement occurs more ____________ than rapid mass movements. An example of slow mass movement is _________. Plants and animals can loosen rocks and soil and cause the rocks/soil to slowly travel downhill. frequently creep