Green Manufacturing Swati Rastogi OISM 470w February 19, 2001
Topics To Be Covered • What is green manufacturing? • Terms to know • Goal • Nuts & bolts • How it works • Obstacles • Real world example • Critical thinking exercise • Summary
What Is Green Manufacturing? • Green manufacturing is a method for manufacturing that minimizes waste and pollution. These goals are often achieved through product and process design.
Terms to Know • Here are some terms to help you better understand the idea of green manufacturing: • Product design – includes the the definition of the product architecture and the design, production, and and testing of a system for production.
Terms to Know (2 of 2) • Three life cycle approaches to product design: • Design for reuse – refers to designing products so that they can be used in later generations of products. • Design for disassembly – a method for developing products so that they can be easily taken apart. • Design for remanufacture – a method for developing products so that the parts can be used in other products.
Goal of Green Manufacturing • The purpose is to support future generations by attaining sustainability by the means of preserving natural resources.
Nuts & Bolts • “Environmentally benign manufacturing will become one of industry’s greatest strategic challenges, not only from an engineering perspective, but from a business and marketing perspective as well.” (3)
Strategic Challenges • Range of coordinated actions • Trade and environment policies (mutually supportive) • Eliminating environmental harmful subsidies • Promoting the transfer of technologies and financial resources • Efficient operation of markets • Achieving greater international cooperation (4)
Obstacles • Businesses have a responsibility of influence • Prices of raw material and subsidized energy are essential • Lack of availability and information (4)
Obstacles (2 of 2) • High-profile leadership • Training programs need more support • Accessibility to loans from the government • National cleaner production centers need to be established (4)
How It Works • Rethink product and process technology • Explore the market potential • Supply goods and services • Extend producer responsibility (4)
How It Works (2 of 2) • Reduce energy consumption • Integrate promotion • Incorporate goals • Promote development • Integrate environmental costs (4)
Real World Example • The need for fossil fuels has lead to discoveries of different methods of manufacturing that replace renewable resources.
Real World Example • Petroleum. • Fossil fuel base for plastic. • Can be replaced by plants. • Corn can be fermented into polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA). • Final product is synthesized biologically and completely biodegradable. • Fast food and packaging industry use polystyrene which has similar characteristics as PHA.
Real World Example – How It Works • Corn is grown and harvested • Transported to manufacturing plant • Glucose extracted and fermented • Cells are washed and spun in centrifuge twice • Concentrated and dried into powder
Critical Thinking Exercise • “Do you think that this process of turning corn or plants into other fossil fuels will be beneficial to the environment in the future?” (3) • Why or why not?
Researched Response • More energy is consumed during polymer production through plant fermentation. • Energy is required to produce fertilizer, insecticide, and herbicides. • Energy is also required in growing, harvesting, and processing. (3)
Researched Response (2 of 3) • Total energy for 1 lb. Of PHA s equal to the utilization of 2.38 lbs of fossil fuel resources • Same amount of polystyrene using chemical manufacturing needs only 2.26 lbs of oil • 19 times more electricity, 22% more steam, and seven times more water (3)
Researched Response (3 of 3) • 2.39 lbs would have to be burned to make energy in fermentation • 1.26 lbs would be burned in chemical manufacturing • Polluting effects are greater (3)
Predictions • “Given adequate support, renewable energy technologies can meet much of the growing demand at prices lower than those usually forecast for conventional energy. By the middle of the 21st century, renewable resources of energy could account for 3/5 of the world’s electricity market and 2/5 of the market for fuels used directly. Moreover, making a transition to renewable-intensive energy economy would provide environmental and other benefits not measure id standard economic accounts”.(4)
Summary • “Cleaner production is a preventive strategy that aims at promoting the use and the development of cleaner, processes, products, and services”. (4) • “A key to more sustainable development is long-term structural changes in the way our economies work”. (2)
Bibliography • “Foster, S. Thomas. Managing Quality: An Integrative Approach. Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall, 2001. • “Green Manufacturing Can Be Worse For Environment.” Unisci.com. http://unisci.com/stories/19993/0824995.htm (24 Aug 1999). • Green Manufacturing Is A Strategic Priority.” ManufacturingNews.com. http://manufacturingnews.com/news/00/0915art1.html (15 Sept. 2000). • “Oslo Roundtable On Sustainable Production and Consumption.” Linkages. http://www.iisd.ca/linkages/consume/oslo006.html.