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Problem Solving within an RTI Secondary School

Problem Solving within an RTI Secondary School

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Problem Solving within an RTI Secondary School

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  1. Problem Solving within an RTI Secondary School Lauren Kaiser, Ph.D. ICAT Resources LLC lauren@icatresources.com The Delaware Department of Education

  2. Agenda • Welcome & Introduction • Problem-Solving as a Core Skill of RTI • Demonstration of Effective Problem-Solving at Tier 1 • Needs Assessment and Next Steps • Evaluation of Session

  3. Session Objectives Participants will… • Increase awareness and understanding of researched components of effective problem solving. • Increase understanding of the application of problem-solving across the tiers. • Be able to differentiate problem identification and problem analysis.

  4. Three major considerations for problem solving and data analysis: • Where in the RTI process should problem solving occur? • What constitutes effective problem solving? • How does data analysis relate to effective problem solving 4

  5. Three -Tier Model of School Supports Intensive Quality Instruction Quality/ Individualized/ Documented/ Interventions Quality Classroom Instruction Decisions for those students not benefiting from interventions Decisions for those students not benefiting from the core curriculum 5

  6. Where should problem solving and data analysis focus? Decisions for those students not benefiting from interventions Intensive Quality Instruction Decisions for those students not benefiting from the core curriculum Quality/ Individualized/ Documented/ Interventions Quality Classroom Instruction There will be times when problem solving and data analysis will be helpful in making decisions to identify students needing more assistance. 6

  7. However, there will be times when problem solving and data analysis will be critical in determining how to actually improve the quality of instruction being delivered. Decisions for those students not benefiting from interventions Intensive Quality Instruction Decisions for those students not benefiting from the core curriculum Quality/ Individualized/ Documented/ Interventions Quality Classroom Instruction 7

  8. “Fundamentally, RTI assumes that producing changes in student responding over time is important, which establishes the instructional task for educators. School-based intervention teams must be able to ensure that instruction is adapted correctly to students’ level of skill proficiency.” Daly, et al., 2007

  9. There will be times when problem solving and data analysis will be critical in determining the quality of instruction being delivered. Intensive Quality Instruction Quality/ Individualized/ Documented/ Interventions Quality Classroom Instruction 9

  10. Intensive Quality Instruction Quality/ Individualized/ Documented/ Interventions Quality Classroom Instruction 10

  11. So, what is “quality” instruction? Intensive Quality Instruction Quality/ Individualized/ Documented/ Interventions QualityClassroom Instruction How do we define quality instruction? 11

  12. Multiple Influences on Learning:(Gravois, Gickling & Rosenfield, 1999) (50-60%) Prior Knowledge Student Match=Success Instruction Task (25-35%) (5-15%)

  13. Influences on Learning:High Achievers (80-90%) Prior Knowledge Student Match=Success Instruction Task (5-10%) (5-10%) 13

  14. Influences on Learning:Low Achievers (10-20%) Prior Knowledge Student Match=Success Instruction Task (40-45%) (40-45%) 14

  15. Importance of Task Long raidans were forming when Matthew arrived. He tried to phindate the amount of time it would take to get to the cornvorster. Vort it would be too long, plast he would miss the game. He varaxated for a moment until the raidans became even longer. He decided that he would ordrul in the raidan opet see vort it would start moving more expedititiously. No sooner had he started fleedjuul, when it began mostulag quite hard. Matthew became disgusted, zipped up his ornaforger, then walked back to his car. He drove home in the mostul. By the time he put the car in the garage, the mostul was droim poet the faetos was out. Matthew was doubly disgusted now. Suddenly, he went inside to watch the game. He turned on the television set but nothing happened. Matthew said to himself, “what a lousy frol”.

  16. Managing Instructional Levels Honoring Working Memory Model Desired Responses Providing Accurate Practice Making Connections Activating Prior Knowledge Developing Automaticity Effective Instructional Match Principles Acknowledging the Complexity of Creating an Instructional Match (p.51) Gickling & Gravois, 2005

  17. Activating Prior Knowledge (p.52) The hallmark of the Instructional Assessment process begins with a valid assessment of what a student knows and what the student can do.

  18. Making Connections (p.52) The brain seeks to make connections between what is new and what is known. These connections create learning and memory. When information is not connected it become forgotten and inaccessible to memory.

  19. Honoring Working Memory (p.52) All new learning first appears in working memory, but working memory has a limited capacity, requires undivided attention, and clears itself automatically. Age Capacity 3 0 5 00 7 000 9 0000 11 00000 13 000000 15 0000000

  20. Managing Instructional Level (p.52) Instructional level contains a high ratio of known information and an appropriate ratio of challenge. Reading Text: 93%-97% known word accuracy Drill & Practice: 70%-85% known items

  21. Acknowledging the Complexity of Creating an Instructional Match Honoring Working Memory Model Desired Responses Providing Accurate Practice Making Connections Activating Prior Knowledge Developing Automaticity Gickling & Gravois, 2005 Effective Instructional Match Principles

  22. Honoring Working Memory Model Desired Responses Providing Accurate Practice Making Connections Activating Prior Knowledge Developing Automaticity Acknowledging the Complexity of Creating an Instructional Match Gickling & Gravois, 2005 Effective Instructional Match Principles

  23. Managing Instructional Levels Honoring Working Memory Model Desired Responses Providing Accurate Practice Making Connections Activating Prior Knowledge Developing Automaticity Effective Instructional Match Principles Acknowledging the Complexity of Creating an Instructional Match Gickling & Gravois, 2005

  24. Modeling Desired Responses (p.52) Only after an instructional match has been achieved will modeling have its desired effect which consists of demonstrating the types of responses that students need to exhibit when completing a particular task or acquired skills.

  25. Providing Accurate Practice (p.52) Guided practice needs to be provided: which includes offering timely confirming and corrective feedback to ensure the new skill is understood, practiced and used.

  26. Developing Automaticity (p.52) Gaining facility in the use of new information and skill requires a sufficient amount of repetition before becoming firmly implanted in the student’s repertoire. 80 IQ=55 repetitions 100 IQ=35 repetitions 120 IQ=25 repetitions

  27. Managing Instructional Levels Honoring Working Memory Model Desired Responses Providing Accurate Practice Making Connections Activating Prior Knowledge Developing Automaticity Effective Instructional Match Principles Acknowledging the Complexity of Creating an Instructional Match Gickling & Gravois, 2005

  28. Underlying Research for Instructional Match (p. 48) Working Memory Age Capacity 3 0 5 00 7 000 9 0000 11 00000 13 000000 15 0000000 Drill & Practice 70% to 85% Knowns Comprehension 93%-97% Knowns

  29. Underlying Research for Instructional Match Working Memory Age Capacity 3 0 5 00 7 000 9 0000 11 00000 13 000000 15 0000000 Drill & Practice 70% to 85% Knowns Comprehension 93%-97% Knowns Repetition IQ 120= 25X IQ 100= 35X IQ 80= 55X

  30. Window of Learning (p.48) Age Capacity Cognitive Load Percent New Learning Size of Learning Set of Knowns 3 0 5 00 7 000 3 97% 9 0000 11 00000 5 Optimal Window 13 000000 15 0000000 7 93% The student’s response to learning the first set (i.e., rate of acquisition) guides the teacher’s decision in teaching the next set.

  31. However, there will be times when problem solving and data analysis will be critical in determining how to actually improve the quality of instruction being delivered. Decisions for those students not benefiting from interventions Intensive Quality Instruction Decisions for those students not benefiting from the core curriculum Quality/ Individualized/ Documented/ Interventions Quality Classroom Instruction 31

  32. Let’s Be Clear….. Individualized problem solving and decision making is critical … but not synonymous with how programming is delivered. Individualized does not equate to individual instruction or individual interventions.

  33. Three major considerations for problem solving and data analysis: • Where in the RTI process should problem solving occur? • What constitutes effective problem solving? • How does data analysis relate to effective problem solving 33

  34. Activity 1: What is effective problem solving? • Think-Write-Share • Working individually first think about how you approach a problem. • Quickly write the steps of problem solving you typically follow-- try to be specific • Share with a partner from your school. Compare and contrast. What are the implications of varied approaches to problem solving?

  35. Researched Characteristics of Effective Problem Solving • Explicit and Observable Descriptions • Collection of Baseline Data • Specification of Measurable Goals • Specification of Intervention Components • Integrity of Intervention Implementation • Graphing of Data to Monitor Progress • Evaluation of Intervention by Comparing Graphed Data to Baseline/ Goals Donovon & Cross, 2002

  36. Researched Characteristics of Effective Problem Solving (cont.) • Problems are best defined as a discrepancy between a desired state and what is occurring. • When students are experiencing problems, one key to finding effective instructional approaches is to conduct analysis of why we believe students are not proficient. This analysis must focus on instructionally relevant and changeable variables. • A plan is developed that is • Goal directed • Based on an analysis of the problem • Identifies specific What? When? and How? • Specifies method for monitoring progress • Documents the plan • Fits the resources and values of people in the setting • Progress is monitored frequently and repeatedly, changes are timely, plan is adjusted based upon data. NASDSE 2005

  37. Researched Characteristics of Effective Problem Solving (cont.) • Increased specificity and integrity of the process linked to greater goal attainment (Levinsohn & Rosenfield, 2000) • Increased accuracy and integrity of documenting the problem solving process the more likely to achieve the goals established (Fudell, 1992; LaFleur & Rosenfield, 2005)

  38. Researched Characteristics of Effective Problem Solving (cont.) “It is important to ensure that all factors (e.g., curriculum, effective instruction, school and classroom environment) have been examined prior to assuming that a student factor (or disability) are responsible for student performance.” NASDSE 2005

  39. Problem Solving Process Problem Identification & Problem Analysis Strategy/ Intervention Design Strategy/ Intervention Implementation Strategy/ Intervention Evaluation Follow-up and Re-design

  40. Problem Solving Process Problem Identification & Problem Analysis Specific and observable concerns Assessment of instructional conditions Data Analysis Principles Prioritized/ Targeted Concerns Baseline Data (direct assessment of concern) Specific and measurable goal Charting and graphing of data

  41. Problem Solving Process Problem Identification & Problem Analysis Strategy/ Intervention Design Academic: • Conducted under instructionally matched conditions • Effective instructional practices (modeling, repetition, corrective feedback, incentives for improvement) • Plan for progress monitoring Behavior: • Conducted under instructionally matched conditions • Application of researched behavior principles • Contingency management • Plan for progress monitoring

  42. Problem Solving Process Problem Identification & Problem Analysis Strategy/ Intervention Design Strategy/ Intervention Implementation • Implementation integrity must be considered • Note: Less than two-thirds of teachers implemented the planned strategy past 2 weeks.

  43. Problem Solving Process Problem Identification & Problem Analysis Strategy/ Intervention Design Strategy/ Intervention Implementation Strategy/ Intervention Evaluation • Charting and graphing of data (at least weekly) • Continued comparison of data with baseline and goals

  44. Problem Solving Process Problem Identification & Problem Analysis Strategy/ Intervention Design Strategy/ Intervention Implementation Strategy/ Intervention Evaluation Follow-up and Re-design - Recognition that refinement and “tweaking” are necessary parts of effective problem solving

  45. Activity 2: Problem Solving Process • Using the criteria for effective problem solving, listen to the case presentation. • Note those components of effective problem solving that were addressed and which were not addressed. • For any aspects not addressed, note how might those tasks be accomplished. Examining ProblemSolving

  46. Activity 3a: Self-Reflection • Specific to problem solving and data analysis, what skills/ expertise does your training/ position bring? • What skills/ expertise do you think will be required for effective problem solving and data analysis? • What role do you play currently? How do we envision your role in how RTI will be implemented in your district? • How will we be involved in maintaining integrity/ fidelity to quality instruction? 49

  47. Activity 3b: Group Reflection • What training needs do you have in order to implement the Problem Solving Process district wide? • To What Degree Does My School/District have a Functional Problem Solving Team? 50