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Do Now

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Do Now

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  1. Do Now • What is the strangest religion you have ever heard of? Why do you think people are attracted to these religions?

  2. Do Now • Meet with your groups and review what you need to do for today (today is the last day in the media center)

  3. Do Now Meet with your groups and get your presentation together and organized You have 10 minutes

  4. Do Now • What questions do you have about this picture? (At least 3)

  5. World Religions

  6. Religion • Religion is a cultural universal

  7. Religion • Definition: A set of beliefs and practices pertaining to the supernatural. • Supernatural is term for those things outside of known science.

  8. Supernatural • Mana- impersonal supernatural forces believed to confer success • Taboo- a prohibition. Violating brings supernatural punishment

  9. Supernatural Beings • Gods = nonhuman origin • Spirits= human origin • Ghosts • Ancestor Spirits

  10. One God or Many? • Polytheism -(Greeks, Baka, Yanomomo) • Monotheism -(Judaism, Christianity, Islam) • Monism – (Hinduism)

  11. Practices pertaining to the Supernatural • Magic- the ability to manipulate the supernatural • Sorcery- use of materials • Witchcraft – emotion alone

  12. Why does religion exist? • Need for Answers • Regression to Childhood Feelings • Anxiety and Uncertainty • Need for Community

  13. Social Complexity • The complexity of a society is related to the number of religious or magical practitioners it will have.

  14. The “Big Five” • Christianity • Islam • Hinduism • Buddhism • Judaism

  15. What is Hinduism? • One of the oldest religions of humanity • The religion of the Indian people • Gave birth to Buddhism, Jainism, Sikhism • Tolerance and diversity: "Truth is one, paths are many" • Many deities but a single, impersonal Ultimate Reality • A philosophy and a way of life – focused both on this world and beyond

  16. How did Hinduism begin? • No particular founder • Indus River Valley Civilization >5000 years ago • Aryans enter 4000 - 3500 years ago • Vedic Tradition 3500 – 2500 years ago: • rituals and many gods (polytheism) • sacred texts (Vedas) • social stratification (caste system) • Upanishads (metaphysical philosophy) 2800 – 2400 years ago • Vedic Tradition develops into Hinduism

  17. What are the Sacred Texts? • Shruti (“heard”) – oldest, most authoritative: • Four Vedas (“truth”) – myths, rituals, chants • Upanishads - metaphysical speculation • Plus other texts • Smriti (“remembered”) – the Great Indian Epics: • Ramayana • Mahabharata (includes Bhagavad-Gita) • Plus others

  18. What do Hindus believe? • One impersonal Ultimate Reality – Brahman • Manifest as many personal deities • True essence of life – Atman, the soul, is Brahman trapped in matter (“That art thou”) • Reincarnation – atman is continually born into this world lifetime after lifetime (Samsara) • Karma – spiritual impurity due to actions keeps us bound to this world (good and bad) • Ultimate goal of life – to release Atman and reunite with the divine, becoming as one with Brahman (Moksha)

  19. How does Hinduism directlife in this world? • Respect for all life – vegetarian • Human life as supreme: • Four “stations” of life (Caste) - priests & teachers, nobles & warriors, merchant class, servant class • Four stages of life – student, householder, retired, renunciant • Four duties of life – pleasure, success, social responsibilities, religious responsibilities (moksha)

  20. What are the spiritualpractices of Hinduism? • The Four Yogas - seeking union with the divine: • Karma Yoga – the path of action through selfless service (releases built up karma without building up new karma) • Jnana Yoga – the path of knowledge (understanding the true nature of reality and the self) • Raja Yoga – the path of meditation • Bhakti Yoga – the path of devotion • Guru – a spiritual teacher, especially helpful for Jnana and Raja yoga

  21. Who do Hindus worship? – the major gods of the Hindu Pantheon Brahma, the creator god

  22. Who do Hindus worship? – the major gods of the Hindu Pantheon Vishnu, the preserver god Incarnates as ten avatars (descents) including: Rama (featured in the Ramayana) Krishna (featured in the Mahabharata) (Each shown with his consort, Sita and Radha, respectively)

  23. Who do Hindus worship? – the major gods of the Hindu Pantheon Shiva, god of constructive destruction(the transformer) Appears as Shiva Nataraj,lord of the dance of creation… and with his wife, Parvati, and son Ganesha(the elephant headed remover of obstacles)

  24. What about the goddesses?Devi – the feminine divine Saraswati, goddess of wisdom, consort ofBrahma

  25. What about the goddesses?Devi – the feminine divine Lakshmi, goddess of good fortune, consortof Vishnu

  26. What about the goddesses?Devi – the feminine divine Parvati, divine mother, wife ofShiva

  27. What about the goddesses?Devi – the feminine divine Durga, protectress Kali, destroyer of demons Plus about 330 million other deities

  28. All these deities are but Manifest forms (attributes and functions) of the impersonal Brahman

  29. And we too are manifest forms of God! “We are not human beingshaving spiritual experiences;We are spiritual beingshaving a human experience!” “That art Thou” Hinduism is about recognizing the all pervasiveness of the divine

  30. Jainism • Jainism is a offshoot of Hinduism • Ahimsa – extreme non-violence

  31. Sikhism • Sikhism represents a blending of cultures • When Muslim (Islam) Arabs conquered India their beliefs blended with Hinduism to form Sikhism

  32. Judaism • Judaism-is an ethical monotheism

  33. Abraham’s Geneaology HAGAR ABRAHAM SARAH Ishmael Isaac 12 Arabian Tribes Jacob Esau 12 Tribes of Israel

  34. Abraham’s Journey from Ur Canaan  The “Promised Land”

  35. Abraham’s Journeys

  36. Yahweh’s “Covenant” With His People • The first 5 books of the Hebrew Bible. • The most sacred text in the Jewish religious tradition. The Torah

  37. Ancient Palestine

  38. Land of Goshen, Egypt

  39. Moses “Prince of Egypt” “Shepherd of His People”

  40. The Exodus

  41. Route of the Exodus

  42. Moses and the 10 Commandmets A new “covenant” with Yahweh

  43. Mount Sinai

  44. St. Catherine’s Monasteryat Mount Sinai

  45. King David’s Empire

  46. Solomon’s Kingdom

  47. Recreation of Ancient Jerusalem