Hitler and His Views 24.3
Hitler and His Views • Adolf Hitler’s ideas were based • on racism • and German nationalism.
Hitler and His Views • Adolf Hitler entered politics by joining the German Workers’ Party in Munich. • Hitler took over the party, which was renamed the National Socialist German Workers’ Party or Nazifor short. • After an unsuccessful revolt against the government, Hitler was imprisoned and wrote Mein Kampf, (My Struggle) which endorsed German nationalism, strong anti-Semitism, and anti-communism.
Hitler and His Views • Hitler expanded the Nazi Party, and it soon became the largest party in the Reichstag. • Hitler won support of the right-wing elites of Germany who, in 1933, pressured the president to allow Hitler to become chancellor and create a new government. • The Enabling Actwas passed, allowing the government to ignore the constitution for four years while it issued laws to deal with the country’s problems.
Hitler and His Views • With Hitler acting as dictator, the Nazi Party quickly brought all institutions under their control, purged the Jews from civil service jobs, and set up concentration camps. • When the president died in 1934, Hitler became the sole ruler of Germany.
The Nazi State, 1933-1939 • Hitler used • anti-Semitism, • economic policy, • and propaganda to build a Nazi state.
The Nazi State, 1933-1939 • Hitler dreamed of creating a purely Aryanstate that would dominate the world. • To achieve his goal of a Third Reich, Hitler and the Nazis used economic policies, mass demonstrations, organizations, and terror. • Heinrich Himmler directed the Schutzstaffeln, commonly called SS, using terror and Nazi ideology to promote the Aryan master race.
The Nazi State, 1933-1939 • Hitler created public works projects to help with the high unemployment rates and end the Depression. • The Nazis used mass demonstrations and meetings, such as the Nurembergparty rallies, to gain support and evoke excitement from the German people.
The Nazi State, 1933-1939 • Under Hitler’s regime, women were seen as wives and mothers who would bear the children destined to see the success of the Aryan race. • Women were only allowed to work in gender-specific jobs such as nursing and social work, but were highly encouraged to stay at home. • The Nazi Party began expanding their anti-Semitism policies to anti-Jewish boycotts and new racial laws such as the Nuremberg laws.
The Nazi State, 1933-1939 • The Nuremberg Laws: • defined anyone with one Jewish grandparent as a Jew • excluded Jews from German citizenship • stripped Jews of their civil rights • forbade marriages between German citizens and Jews • forbade Jews from teaching in schools and participating in the arts • required Jews to wear yellow Stars of David and carry identification cards
The Nazi State, 1933-1939 • On November 9, 1938, a more violent phase began with Kristallnacht. Nazis burned synagogues and Jewish businesses and sent 30,000 Jews to concentration camps. • After Kristallnacht,Jews were barred from all public transportation and public buildings, and were prohibited from owning or working in any retail store. • The SS encouraged Jews to “emigrate from Germany.”
Mass Culture and Leisure • Hitler used radio and movies as propaganda tools to promote Nazism
Mass Culture and Leisure • The Nazi regime encouraged people to listen to the radio because it offered an opportunity to reach the masses. • Hitler discovered his speeches were just as influential over the radio as they were in person.
Mass Culture and Leisure • Films were also used to reach large groups of people. Films were specially created by the Propaganda Ministry to spread the Nazi message. • The Nazi regime used leisure time as another way to control the people by offering concerts, operas, films, guided tours, and sporting events.
Arts and Science • The art, literature, and scientific breakthroughs produced after World War I both embraced the past and reflected uncertainty for the future.
Arts and Science • Many artists continued to follow the styles and trends of post-World War I, although new styles did emerge such as the Dada movement and surrealism. • Dada artist Hannah Hoch used photomontageto show women’s roles in the new mass culture.
Arts and Science • Salvador Dalí, a well known surrealist, used everyday objects in unfamiliar settings, creating a strange world where the irrational became visible. • Hitler and the Nazis used art to depict heroic Germans. • In literature, the search for the unconscious became popular. Writers used techniques to show their characters’ innermost thoughts.
Arts and Science • James Joyce used this style in Ulysses, which tells the story of one day in the life of ordinary citizens in Dublin. • In Germany, Hermann Hesse’snovels focused on the spiritual loneliness of modern human beings in a mechanized urban society. • In science, Albert Einstein’s work in physics continued into the 1930s.
Arts and Science • Newtonian physics encouraged people to believe that all phenomena could be defined and predicted until 1927, when German physicist Werner Heisenberg’s uncertainty principleshook this belief. • The uncertainty principle represented a new world view based on uncertainty.