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Operant Conditioning (Types of Reinforcement)

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Operant Conditioning (Types of Reinforcement)

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  1. Operant Conditioning(Types of Reinforcement) Mr. Koch Psychology Forest Lake High School

  2. Operant Conditioning • Ways to decrease behavior • Extinction • Punishment • Ways to increase behavior • Pairing • Positive reinforcement • Negative reinforcement

  3. Operant Conditioning

  4. Operant Conditioning • Primary Reinforcers • Associated with needs • Not learned • Ex: food, clothing, shelter • Secondary Reinforcers • Associated with something that satisfies a need • Is learned • Ex: $$$, poker chips, food stamps, grades

  5. Operant Conditioning • Positive Reinforcement • Increases the frequency of a behavior • Is wanted • Ex: food, praise, money, awards • Negative Reinforcement • Increases behavior by removing something unpleasant (discomfort, fear, social disapproval, etc) • “reverse reward” • Ex: don’t have to do the dishes all week if you get an A

  6. Operant Conditioning • Punishment • Consequence that decreases the rate of a behavior • Important: • What is reinforcing to one is NOT necessarily to another • Ex: Suspension after skipping school = more days off vs. fear of suspension • Increases attendance for some, not for others • Ex: Student forced to stay after school = punishment for some vs. now getting teacher’s full attention (positive)

  7. Operant Conditioning(Schedules of Reinforcement) • Fixed Interval • based on time • Reinforced after a set time period • Ex: bell ringing after class • Ex: quizzes every Friday • Variable Interval • Based on time • Reinforced randomly at different times • Resistant to extinction • Ex: pop quizzes

  8. Operant Conditioning(Schedules of Reinforcement) • Fixed Ratio • Based on responses (behaviors) • After set # of correct responses • Easy to extinguish behavior • Ex: piecework in factories, dog treat every 3rd time trick is performed • Variable Ratio • Reinforce behavior after random number of correct responses • Very resistant to extinction (can be addictive) • Ex: Gambling, fishing

  9. Operant Conditioning • Avoidance Conditioning • Eliminate undesirable behavior not yet present • Subject taught to avoid stimulus • Counter Conditioning • Applies to already learned undesirable behaviors • Seeking a new response • Unlearning old behavior