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Analysis of a Specialized Regional Jail Facility

Analysis of a Specialized Regional Jail Facility

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Analysis of a Specialized Regional Jail Facility

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  1. Analysis of a Specialized Regional Jail Facility Preliminary Report Joint Legislative Audit and Review Committee January 4, 2006 Presented by John Woolley, JLARC Staff

  2. What We’ll Cover Today • FIRST: • Directive and Summary of Lessons Learned • SECOND: • Background and Context • THIRD: • Lessons We Learned • FINISH: • Conclusions/Recommendations

  3. Jail for Offenders with Mental Health/Chemical Abuse Challenges Directive/Summary • JLARC assess whether existing facilities could be converted to a specialized, regional jail(E2SSB 5763, 2005) • Specialized: offenders with mental health and co-occurring mental or chemical dependency disorders that need specialized treatment • Regionaljail: offenders from many counties and cities

  4. Three Key Questions: Size? Basic Features? Costs? Directive/Summary • SIZE of such a jail? • Need answers to how many, the pool of offenders: demand • FEATURES or attributes? • Need answers to what these offenders require • COSTSto convert? • Need answers to number of offenders, offender requirements, and building rehab JLARC's Specialized Regional Jail Analysis

  5. And Also Important: Benefits? Directive/Summary • Do benefits or efficiencies reduce or defray costs or help avoid future costs? • Need answers to whether specialized services make a difference: efficiencies and reduced re-offending? JLARC's Specialized Regional Jail Analysis

  6. Many Lessons Learned in Finding Answers: Summary Directive/Summary • SIZE • Potential pool of offenders: about 500 • But depends: local choice and who pays? • FEATURES • Secure and provide for stabilization and transition • COST • New construction likely least expensive JLARC's Specialized Regional Jail Analysis

  7. Lessons on Benefits? Directive/Summary • Washington State Institute for Public Policy reviewing jail-based programs to determine benefits • Analysis to be completed by Fall 2006 • JLARC models constructed to incorporate benefits information JLARC's Specialized Regional Jail Analysis

  8. Jails Differ in Many Ways From Prisons Background and Context • In General: • 58 jails, more compact and smaller • When entering jail, offenders may be under influence of alcohol or drugs • Less time in jail: average of 15 days vs. 20 months in prison • Prisons are run by one state agency: Department of Corrections • Many different county/city agencies run jails JLARC's Specialized Regional Jail Analysis

  9. Background and Context JLARC's Specialized Regional Jail Analysis

  10. Background and Context Past Reviews of Regional Jails Give Us Insights • Washington Association of Sheriffs and Police Chiefs looked in 2001 and 2005 • Sentencing Guidelines Commission looked in 2003 • Insights into issues of multiple jurisdiction jail JLARC's Specialized Regional Jail Analysis

  11. ISSUE DISCUSSED Answer? Background and Context Past Reviews of Regional Jails Gives Us Insights Economies of scale? Improve conditions/security? Work also for special populations? A good idea? Require high degree of cooperation? State funding desired? JLARC's Specialized Regional Jail Analysis

  12. Background and Context Why Specialized Services? There is a Legal Requirement • U.S. Supreme Court requires jails to provide care for serious medical needs, such as mental health care. • State law: jails to provide necessary medical care. • Also standards: American Correctional Association jail standardsfor mental health: • Screening, crisis intervention, stabilization, referral JLARC's Specialized Regional Jail Analysis

  13. Illness Characteristics Concerns Background and Context Three Mental Illnesses of Primary Concern Serious Depression Profound hopelessness Factor in suicidal and self-harming behavior Prozac: $1.83 day Bipolar disorder Severe mood swings, possible delusions Suicide risk or disruptive (manic) Lithium: 73 cents day Schizo-phrenia Random, illogical, irrelevant thoughts Violence to staff and other inmates Zyprexa: $19.76 day JLARC's Specialized Regional Jail Analysis

  14. Size: Potential Pool of Offenders is About 500 Lessons Learned • Demand assumptions model constructed • Math: 10,036 Jail Average Daily Population x 16% Percent with MH issue x 31% Percent with MH issue requiring specialized services 430 men and 67 women • Equates to about 5% of jail population JLARC's Specialized Regional Jail Analysis

  15. Local jurisdictions will choose: factors? Price and who pays? Proximity: how close to existing jail—transportation, courts, defenders, family, local services? Program: intensity and focus of services—stabilization, treatment, transition Actual Demand Depends on Price, Proximity, and Program Lessons Learned

  16. Features: Three Key Attributes Lessons Learned • It’s a jail: security must be kept in mind • Withstand the rigors of an institution: “hardened” for a confined population • Recognize specialized requirements of population including program space: emphasis on safety, stabilization, and transition services JLARC's Specialized Regional Jail Analysis

  17. Cost to Convert and Operate: Life-Cycle Cost Analysis Used Lessons Learned • Detailed life-cycle cost analysis on three existing buildings and on a new building as a comparison • Life-cycle analysis takes all costs, such as capital and operating, for life of building into consideration • Compares buildings of different sizes and useful life in a rigorous way JLARC's Specialized Regional Jail Analysis

  18. Building Alternatives: Different Size, Location, Cost Lessons Learned Lessons Learned • Annex to existing Chelan-Douglas jail: • Small alternative with 20 beds • Converted nursing home in Spokane • Medium alternative with 75 beds • Juvenile Rehab facility in Chehalis • Large alternative with 256 beds JLARC's Specialized Regional Jail Analysis

  19. JLARC's Specialized Regional Jail Analysis 18b

  20. JLARC's Specialized Regional Jail Analysis 18c

  21. JLARC's Specialized Regional Jail Analysis 18d

  22. JLARC's Specialized Regional Jail Analysis 18e

  23. JLARC's Specialized Regional Jail Analysis 18f

  24. JLARC's Specialized Regional Jail Analysis 18g

  25. BUILDING 30 YEAR LIFE-CYCLE COST Building Alternatives: Different Size, Location, Cost Lessons Learned Lessons Learned Chelan-Douglas Annex 20 beds $987,000 per bed Juvenile Rehab Facility 256 beds $1,010,000 per bed Nursing Home 75 beds $1,052,000 per bed New Facility 128 beds $951,000 per bed JLARC's Specialized Regional Jail Analysis 19

  26. Lesson: Each Alternative Has Advantages and Disadvantages Lessons Learned • CHELAN/DOUGLAS JAIL ANNEX ADVANTAGES • Make use of main jail’s infrastructure • Small facility (20 beds) may serve needs of smaller, more rural counties DISADVANTAGES • Small facility less efficient • Small limits treatment options • Can accommodate only one gender 20

  27. Lesson: Each Alternative Has Advantages and Disadvantages Lessons Learned • SPOKANE CONVERTED NURSING HOME ADVANTAGES • Accommodates men and women • Wheelchair access and low acquisition cost • May be sized ( 75 beds) to demand DISADVANTAGES • Extensive retro-fitting required: not “hard” • Not built with suicide prevention in mind • Location (residential) may be difficult 21

  28. Lesson: Each Alternative Has Advantages and Disadvantages Lessons Learned • JUVENILE REHAB CENTER ADVANTAGES • Located on I-5 • Constructed for confined population • Existing units efficient; men and women DISADVANTAGES • “Campus” style too open for jail population • Some existing buildings not needed • Sharing facility difficult: “sight and sound” 22

  29. Lesson: Each Alternative Has Advantages and Disadvantages Lessons Learned • BRAND NEW FACILITY (PROTOTYPE) ADVANTAGES • Units scaled for staffing efficiency • Designed for specific program needs • New building has longer useful life • Men and women DISADVANTAGES • Siting new jail likely difficult 23

  30. Many Other Options Exist Lessons Learned • Focus on alternatives to jail: “continuum” • Specialized jail only after other alternatives explored • MH Court, crisis triage, expanded services • Develop as specialized wing in planning for new or expanded jail • Make use of jail infrastructure • If it doesn’t work, fold back into “regular” jail JLARC's Specialized Regional Jail Analysis 24

  31. SIZE Estimate of about 5% of jail population BUT each jurisdiction will make their own decision—demand based on price, proximity, and program Recommendation 1: As it evaluates the establishment of a regional jail, the Legislature should consider specific local requirements as it estimates demand. Conclusions& Lessons on Size, Features, Costs Recommendations 25

  32. FEATURES Secure facility, withstand rigors of this population, programming area, mix of cell types, suicide prevention in mind COST New construction likely least expensive: staffing efficiency and specific needs accommodated Recommendation 2: As it considers the specifics of converting an existing facility to a specialized regional jail, the Legislature should consider basic custody staffing efficiencies as a key cost factor. Conclusions& Lessons on Size, Features, Costs Recommendations 26

  33. SIZE, FEATURES, AND COSTS Currently no specialized regional jail, so, many unknowns Question: Best way to establish a new option? Recommendation 3: The Legislature should consider incorporating a specialized regional wing into the planning for a new county jail. Consideration can be given to efficient design, funding mechanisms, and management structures. Conclusions& Lessons on Size, Features, Costs Recommendations 27

  34. JLARC Staff To Contact For Further Information John Woolley Phone: 360.786.5184 E-Mail: woolley.john@leg.wa.gov JLARC's Specialized Regional Jail Analysis 28