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  1. 1607 Year in which representatives of the Virginia Company of London established the first permanent English settlement in North America at Jamestown, Virginia.

  2. Mayflower Compact • Written in 1620 by male Pilgrims on the Mayflower. Created government where none had existed based on majority rule. • A social contract where all agreed to abide by these rules in the colonies.

  3. Fundamental Orders of Connecticut • First written constitution in the colonies; document that people had the right to elect governors, judges, and a legislature. Was written by the people; the fact that it was written down gave the document credibility.

  4. Mercantilism • Economic theory in which a nation’s wealth is based on the amount of revenue is generated from its colonies. • The more gold and • silver a nation has • determine its • wealth.

  5. Slave Trade The buying and selling of millions of Africans to North America.

  6. Plantation System • System of agricultural production based on large scale landownership; depended upon slave labor; Assisted in the development of an agrarian society • in the South

  7. Triangular Trade Route Trade route from: • Europe → Africa • Africa→West Indies • West Indies→Europe

  8. House of Burgesses • First elected body of representatives in the American colonies; met in Williamsburg, Virginia. • Based on Parliament.

  9. New England Colonies • Along the Atlantic Coast • Subsistence farming • Poor soil • Cold climate • Forests • Economic factors: raw materials, logging, fishing shipbuilding • Political factors: town meetings, representative government • Social factors: small coastal towns (Boston only large city) • Religious factors: Puritans, Pilgrims

  10. Southern Colonies • Appalachian Mountains • Navigable rivers • Richer soil • Warm climate • Raw materials • Economic factors: plantations, cash crops, tobacco, rice, cotton • Political factors: more slaves, more class-based society • Social factors and small coastal towns (Savannah, Charleston were large cities) • Religious factors: Church of England, Catholics (Maryland), more diverse

  11. Middle Colonies • Rich soil • Broad, deep rivers • More natural ports • River valleys • Mild winters • Raw materials • Economic factors: large farms, logging, fishing, shipbuilding • Political factors: more tolerance; diversity • Social factors small coastal towns (Philadelphia, Baltimore, New York were large cities) • Religious factors: Quakers, Catholics

  12. Effects of Physical and Human Geographic Factors on Major Historical and Contemporary Events • Physical geographic factors – proximity to Atlantic coastline determined where settlements/colonies were created • The New England Middle colonies had access to waterways that resulted in high population and larger urban areas. • Southern colonies had an abundant amount of fertile soil that resulted in an agricultural society • Human geographic factors – removal of the Native Americans, disease and conflict (ex. Georgia as a buffer between the other British colonies and Spanish Florida)

  13. Great Awakening • Religious movement in the 1730s and 1740s. • Preached ideas that went against Puritan beliefs and teachings. • JONATHAN EDWARDS – one of the best known preachers of the time – his sermon, “Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God”, urged believers to develop a personal relationship with God. • This movement revitalized American religion by adding emotion. • The Abolitionist Movement began in response to the Great Awakening.

  14. William Penn • William Penn established a colony in North America as a refuge for Quakers. The land grant from the King was called “Pennsylvania” or Penn’s Woods. Supported toleration of the Native Americans, freedom of worship, welcomed immigrants, and did not require citizens to serve in the militia. • Believed that each person was equal and allowed them to elect their own government officials.

  15. Benjamin Franklin • Inventor, Scientist, Founding Father • 1706 – 1790 • Published Poor Richard’s Almanack; sayings in his book helped shape the American character, such as “early to bed, early to rise, makes a man healthy, wealthy, and wise. • Founded the first public library in the colonies, supported education; Post Master General for all the colonies • Scientist: Enlightenment: believed that through study and knowledge a person could improve his position in life • Member of the committee that wrote the Declaration of Independence • Created the Albany Plan of Union – the first attempt to unite the colonies during the French and Indian War • Considered to be the “first civilized American” • Invented the lightening rod, bifocal glasses, and the Franklin stove

  16. Explain the reasons for the development of representative government in Colonial America Representative governments often develop to meet the political, economic, and social needs of the people who hold similar beliefs.

  17. Major Eras and Events in U.S. History – Colonial America • Exploration and Colonization • Establishment of the 13 colonies • Representative Democracy • Mercantilism • Religious Freedom

  18. What are some reasons for European colonization of North America Reasons for Colonization: • Religious freedom • Political freedom • Economic opportunity (mercantilism) • Social mobility • A better way of life

  19. What are some reasons for European Exploration • Reasons for Exploration: • Religion • Wealth • Fame • National pride • Curiosity • Faster, cheaper trade routes to Asia

  20. Political reasons for establishing the 13 English Colonies Political Reasons for establishing the 13 English Colonies: • Political • Competition with Spain and France who already had many colonies in North America • Increase trade and markets for English exports (mercantilism) • Source of raw materials

  21. Religious reasons for establishing the 13 English Colonies Religious reasons for establishing the 13 English Colonies: • Seeking religious freedom • Freedom from persecution for religious beliefs

  22. Reasons for Growth of Representative Government and Institutions During the Colonial Period • Distance from England created a need for colonists to make their own laws and keep peace and order • Colonists were accustomed to English traditions and structures (Parliament) • Most colonies were self-governing, electing members of their community to a general assembly, which made their laws

  23. Social reasons for establishingthe 13 English Colonies: Social reasons for establishing the 13 English Colonies: • Opportunity for adventure and a better way of life • England was overcrowded and settlers desired their own land.

  24. How did Religion and Virtue Contribute to the Growth of Representative Government in the American Colonies • Religious freedom was a cause for the establishment of the American colonies. • Religious groups: Quakers, Pilgrims, Puritans, and others) creating communities that were self-governed. • Penn colony (Pennsylvania) was an experiment in the possibility of equality and citizens involved in the government.

  25. Effects of Political, Economic, and Social Factors on Slaves During the Colonial Period Slaves During the Colonial Period: • Political – no political voice; no rights • Economic – labor of the Plantation System; considered property; children considered property and sold with no regard to parents • Social – viewed as property; viewed as outside the American identity

  26. Physical and Human Geographic Factors on Colonization: • Proximity to the Atlantic coastline determined where settlements/colonies were created • Human geographic factors – removal of the Native Americans, disease and conflict; for example, Georgia was a buffer between the other British colonies and Spanish Florida.

  27. Effects of Political, Economic, and Social Factors on Free Blacks During the Colonial Period Free Blacks During the Colonial Period: • Political – no political voice; limited / restricted rights • Economic – low wage earners • Social – lowest social class; limited access to education; socially isolated

  28. Physical and Human Geographic Factors on Colonization: • Proximity to the Atlantic coastline determined where settlements/colonies were created • Human geographic factors – removal of the Native Americans, disease and conflict; for example, Georgia was a buffer between the other British colonies and Spanish Florida

  29. American Revolution Era, 1775 - 1783 • Taxation without Representation • Boston Massacre • Boston Tea Party • Unalienable Rights • Battles of Lexington and Concord, Saratoga, and Yorktown • Declaration of Independence • Articles of Confederation

  30. Causes of the American Revolution • Proclamation of 1763 • Stamp Act • Intolerable Acts • Mercantilism • Lack of representation in Congress • British economic policies following the French and Indian War

  31. 1776 • *Adoption of the Declaration of Independence • *Main Author: Thomas Jefferson • *Committee Included: Ben Franklin, John Adams, Roger Livingston • *“Common Sense” • Written by: Thomas Paine

  32. Proclamation of 1763 • *British Parliament law; colonists were forbidden to settle west of the Appalachian Mountains, *Britain wanted a buffer zone between the colonists and the Native Americans, but the colonists wanted to settle the fertile Ohio River Valley

  33. Stamp Act, 1765 • Required all legal documents and papers have an official stamp showing that a tax had been paid. • British used this to generate revenue to help cover the cost of the French and Indian War; • colonists reacted by rioting through groups such as the Sons of Liberty; • Stamp Act Congress meets in October, 1765, to take action and ask Parliament to repeal the act.

  34. Mercantilism • A system by which a nation increases its wealth and power by obtaining from its colonies gold, silver, and other raw materials. • It includes a favorable balance of trade. • The colonies became a source of raw materials for the mother country (England.) • The colonies are expected to be the purchasers of manufactured goods from the mother country. • Belief that a colony exists for the economic benefit of the mother country.

  35. Coercive / Intolerable Acts, 1774 British reaction to the Boston Tea Party • Closed the port of Boston until tea was paid for • Restructured Massachusetts government by taking away local control • Troops were quartered in Boston and British officials accused of crimes were sent to England or Canada for trial • Colonists reacted by boycotting British goods • First Continental Congress is formed, September, 1774

  36. Taxation without Representation • Since the formation of the colonies, the colonists had set up their own legislative assemblies. • Colonists were unhappy about Britain’s insistence on the supremacy of Parliament (taxation). • The debate turned into one regarding representation in Britain’s law-making body (Parliament). • Britain argued that the colonies had “virtual representation.”

  37. Abigail Adams • Wife of John Adams • Served as John Adams’ confidant and support while he served in the Continental Congress, when John and others were considering a declaration of independence. • Abigail reminded him to “remember the ladies”; take care of the women who could not hold themselves bound by laws in which they had no voice. • Advocate for women’s rights.

  38. John Adams • Lawyer and politician • Defended the British soldiers after the Boston Massacre • A member of the Continental Congress (representing Massachusetts) • Strong supporter of independence • Member of the committee that wrote the Declaration of Independence

  39. Wentworth Cheswell • African American Patriot • Like Paul Revere, he made an all-night ride back from Boston to warn his community to the impending British invasion • Served in the Continental Army • Fought at the Battle of Saratoga

  40. Mercy Otis Warren • Wife of a Massachusetts Patriot • Anonymously wrote several propaganda pieces supporting the Patriot cause

  41. Benjamin Franklin • *A member of the committee that wrote the Declaration of Independence. • *Spent most of the time during the American Revolution in France. • *He represented the colonies as the American envoy starting in 1776 and returned in 1785. • *He negotiated the alliance with France for support after the victory at Saratoga. • *Member of the committee that negotiated the terms for the Treaty of Paris in 1783 that ended the war.

  42. James Armistead • *Slave in Virginia • *Marquis de Lafayette recruited him as a spy for the Continental Army. • *Posed as a double agent, forger and servant at British headquarters. • *He moved freely between the lines with vital information on British troop movements for Lafayette • *Contributed to the American victory at Yorktown.

  43. Bernardo de’ Galvez • *Spanish nobleman • *Became governor of the Spanish province of Louisiana (January 1777) • *protected American ships in the port of New Orleans • *helped transport war supplies • *took up arms to fight the British and protect Louisiana

  44. Crispus Attucks • African American male • Unemployed dockworker in Boston, MA • Became the first casualty (first to die) of the American Revolution • Shot and killed in what became known as the Boston Massacre, March 5, 1770

  45. Haym Solomon • Polish-born Jewish immigrant to America • Played an important role in financing the American Revolution • Arrested by the British as a spy • Used by the British as an interpreter with their German troops • Helped British prisoners escape and encouraged German soldiers to desert the British Army • Became a broker to the French consul and paymaster to French troops in the American Revolution

  46. King George III • *King of England during the Revolutionary Era • *Feared the loss of one group of colonies would lead to the loss of others and the eventual decline of the empire. • *To prevent this, the Crown maintained an aggressive policy against colonial resistance. • George III struggled to enforce royal authority throughout his reign.

  47. Patrick Henry • Member of the Virginia House of Burgesses • Spoke against the Stamp Act • Famous quote, “Give me liberty, or give me death!” • During the American Revolution he served in the Continental Army

  48. Thomas Jefferson • Virginian • Early leader in the American Revolution • Delegate to the Continental Congress in Philadelphia in 1776 • Member of the committee that wrote the Declaration of Independence • Chief author of the Declaration of Independence

  49. Thomas Paine • Propagandist • Journalist • In January, 1776, published a pamphlet, “Common Sense” • Persuaded many Americans to join the Patriot cause.

  50. Marquis de Lafayette • *French aristocrat who joined Washington and his troops at Valley Forge, PA • *Played a leading role in both the American and French Revolutions • *Respected the concepts of liberty and freedom and a constitutional government • *Commanded forces under George Washington as a major-general in the Continental Army