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The History In and Of the Bible

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  1. The History In and Of the Bible Part 2: The History of the Bible

  2. For Review • What are the original languages in which the books of the Bible were first written? • Hebrew, Aramaic, Greek • The terms “Semitic,” “Hebrew,” and “Jew” • Shem (ancestor of Canaanite people) • Ibri (pl. Ibrim) (Eber, ancestor Abraham, Gen 10:21) • Jonah says “I am a Hebrew (ibri)” (1:9) • Yihudi (pl. Yihudim) (Judah, surviving kingdom after 722 BC)

  3. Genesis 1:1

  4. 1500 BC 1000 BC 930 BC Jesus’ return 4 BC 586 BC 722 BC Israel United Kingdom 120 yrs silence Patriarchs 3500 yrs Exodus - Judges 400 yrs Judah divided kingdom New Testament Christians us 2000 AD Abraham ~2000 BC period of Patriarchs period of Conquest Jesus period of Wanderings For Review: Major divisions in Old Testament History • Patriarchs 2000-1500 BC • Exodus – Judges 1500-1000 BC • United Monarchy 1000-930 BC • Divided Monarchy 930-586 BC • Captivity 586-400 BC

  5. Remember the dates to hang your hat on? • Abraham • 2000 BC • Moses • 1500 BC • David • 1000 BC • Fall of Jerusalem • 586 BC

  6. Basic Divisions of the OT • Historical Books • Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy • Joshua, Judges, Ruth, 1 + 2 Samuel, 1 + 2 Kings, 1 + 2 Chronicles, Ezra, Nehemiah, Esther • Written in narrative prose Why are the first 5 books listed separately from the remaining books? First five written by Moses aka Pentateuch “5 scrolls / volumes”

  7. Basic Divisions of the OT • Poetical Books • Job, Psalms, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Song of Songs (Solomon) • Written in Hebrew poetry and verse, often sung • Prophetical • Isaiah, Jeremiah, Lamentations (of Jeremiah), Ezekiel, Daniel, Hosea, Joel, Amos, Obadiah, Jonah, Micah, Nahum, Habakkuk, Zephaniah, Haggai, Zechariah, Malachi • Written in both prose and poetry

  8. Traditional Jewish Divisions Luke 24:44 Jesus said to them, “This is what I told you while I was still with you: Everything must be fulfilled that is written about me in the Law of Moses, the Prophets and the Psalms.” Matthew 26:56 But this has all taken place that the writings of the prophets might be fulfilled.” Then all the disciples deserted him and fled.

  9. Traditional Jewish Divisions • The Law of Moses • “Pentateuch” – Greek, meaning ‘five scrolls / volumes’ • “Torah” – Hebrew, meaning ‘The Law’ • Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy

  10. Traditional Jewish Divisions • The Prophets • Joshua, Judges, 1 + 2 Samuel, 1 + 2 Kings, • Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, (Hosea, Joel, Amos, Obadiah, Jonah, Micah, Nahum, Habakkuk, Zephaniah, Haggai, Zechariah, Malachi) • The Writings • “Ketuvim” – Hebrew, meaning ‘The Writings’ • Psalms, Job, Proverbs • Ruth, Song of Songs, Ecclesiastes, Lamentations,Esther • Daniel, Ezra + Nehemiah, 1 + 2 Chronicles

  11. Important to Remember • Our 39 books are arranged into 24 books in the Jewish division of books!

  12. The Writing of the OT • Which books were the earliest written? • Law (aka Torah, Pentateuch, first 5 books of Moses) Deuteronomy 31:9, 26 So Moses wrote down this law and gave it to the priests, the sons of Levi, who carried the ark of the covenant of the LORD, and to all the elders of Israel. And Moses gave this command, “Take this Book of the Law and place it beside the ark of the covenant of the LORD your God. There it will remain as a witness against you.

  13. The Writing of the OT • Joshua followed Moses’ example: Joshua 24:26 And Joshua recorded these things in the Book of the Law of God. Then he took a large stone and set it up there under the oak near the holy place of the LORD.

  14. The Writing of the Old Testament Historical Books

  15. The Writing of the OT – Historical • The Law of Moses – Period of the Exodus • Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy • 1450 BC – During the Exodus, while at Sinai and following • The Characters we meet: • Adam & Eve • Satan as a snake • Noah • Abraham, Isaac, & Jacob • Joseph • Now we have a problem! Job (Possibly 2000BC) • Moses • Pharaoh of Egypt • Joshua • Aaron • Miriam • Caleb the spy

  16. The Writing of the OT – Historical • Joshua – The Exodus and Conquest of Canaan • 1350 BC, by General Joshua, Moses’ successor • Jericho! • Judges – The Period of the Judges • 1000 BC, possibly by Samuel the prophet/last Judge • Gideon, Samson, Debora • Ruth – The Period of the Judges • 1000 BC, possibly Samuel • Moabite woman who “marries in” • Great-grandmother of David, and…??

  17. The Writing of the OT – Historical • 1+2 Samuel – Unified Monarchy • (originally one book, divided later) • 900 BC, by Samuel with help from the prophets Nathan and Gad (1 Chronicles 29:29) • Fully completed after Samuel’s death • Transition to the monarchy • Saul to David • Rise and fall of David

  18. The Writing of the OT – Historical • 1 Kings – Unified Monarchy • 570 BC, covering events from about 970-850 BC • No clear author, possibly Jeremiah the prophet • The reign of Solomon, David’s son • Elijah, the champion of the LORD • 2 Kings – Divided Kingdom • about 570 BC, covering events from about 800 BC on • Northern kingdom “Israel” begins idolatry • Elijah, Elisha • Southern kingdom “Judah” rollercoaster of faithfulness to idolatry

  19. The Writing of the OT – Historical • 1 Chronicles – Unified to Divided Kingdoms • Originally one book • Written about 450 BC, covering events from about 1010 BC (Saul’s death) to 970 BC (David’s death) • Probably by Ezra, a priest • Northern kingdom was dying spiritually, retelling of David’s history • 2 Chronicles • Events from 970 BC (Solomon become king) to the 500s B.C. (when exiled Jews returned to Jerusalem)

  20. The Writing of the OT – Historical • Ezra – Post-Exile from Babylon • Written by Ezra the priestaround 440 BC • Jewish settlers returning home • Begin rebuilding Jerusalem and the Temple • Nehemiah – Post-Exile from Babylon • Written by Nehemiah, Jewish official of Persia around 430 BC • More settlers returning home • Esther – During Exile in Babylon • Unknown author around 460 BC • Jews saved from genocidal plot in Babylon/Persia

  21. The Writing of the Old Testament The Poetical Books

  22. The Writing of the OT - Poetical • Job – Era of the Patriarchs • Unknown author, probably around 2000 BC • God uses troubles to draw us closer to him • Psalms – Written over 1000 year period • David (73), Asaph (12), Korah’s descendants (9), Solomon (2), Moses (1), rest are anonymous • Hymnbook of the OT • Sung during worship, various festivals and occasions • Probably compiled into its complete form by Ezra around 450 BC

  23. The Writing of the OT - Poetical • Proverbs – Unified Monarchy • Written by Solomon around 950 BC • Practical wisdom from God • Ecclesiastes – Unified Monarchy • Written by Solomon around 950 BC • A glimpse at life without God (Solomon’s experience) • Song of Songs (Solomon) – Unified Monarchy • Probably written by Solomon around 950 BC • Christian marriage mirrors God’s relationship to us, his Church

  24. The Writing of the Old Testament Prophetical Books

  25. The Writing of the OT - Prophetical • Prophets were messengers from God, the preachers of the OT. They came with a message for an individual or a group of people. The prophets wrote in response to historical events. These bigger prophet books even provide extra details on the historical events. • Divided into two sub-categories • The Major Prophets: Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, and Daniel • The Minor Prophets: All the rest • (Only because of length, NOT importance!)

  26. The Writing of the OT - Prophetical • Isaiah – Divided Kingdom • Written by Isaiah about 700 BC • Chapters 1-39 focus on Israel’s sins mainly • Chapters 40-66 focus on the coming Messiah mainly • Eventually martyred Isaiah 9:6 For to us a child is born, to us a son is given, and the government will be on his shoulders. And he will be called Wonderful Counselor,Mighty God, Everlasting Father, Prince of Peace. Of the increase of his government and peace there will be no end. He will reign on David’s throne and over his kingdom, establishing and upholding it with justice and righteousness from that time on and forever.

  27. The Writing of the OT - Prophetical • Jeremiah – End of Divided Kingdom • Written by Jeremiah around 585 BC • Warned of the coming destruction and exile by Babylon • Lamentations • Written by Jeremiah around 585 BC • Jeremiah’s lamenting sadness over Judah’s unfaithful stubbornness to repent • Jeremiah carried off into Egypt as an exile, never saw home again

  28. The Writing of the OT - Prophetical • Ezekiel – Captivity in Babylon • Written by Ezekiel the prophet in Babylon over a 20 year period from 593-597 BC • God calls us close even through mysterious and scary events • Daniel – Captivity in Babylon • Written by Daniel, a Prime Minister in the Babylonian Empire around 530 BC • Chapters 1-6: Narrative history • Chapters 7-12: Visions remarkably similar to John’s Revelation

  29. The Writing of the OT - Prophetical • Hosea – Divided Kingdom • Written by Hosea around 700 BC • Sent to the Northern Kingdom of Israel • Warning and call to repentance • Joel – Divided Kingdom • Written by Joel around 800 BC • One of the earliest prophets • May have studied with Elijah and Elisha

  30. The Writing of the OT - Prophetical • Amos – Divided Kingdom • Written by Amos around 700 BC • Like Joel, sent to the Northern Kingdom • Obadiah – Divided Kingdom • Sent to Edom, Judah’s neighbors to the southeast • Call to repentance • Gospel to the world

  31. The Writing of the OT - Prophetical • Jonah – Divided Kingdom • Written by Jonah around 775 BC • From the Northern Kingdom, but sent to Nineveh to preach repentance and forgiveness to Assyria • Wanted no part in that! • Micah – Divided Kingdom • Written by Micah around 700 BC • Warned of coming disaster in Jerusalem

  32. The Writing of the OT - Prophetical • Nahum – Divided Kingdom • Written by Nahum around 650 BC • Sequel to Jonah • Habakkuk – Divided Kingdom • Written by Habakkuk the priest around 600 BC • Contemporary of Jeremiah • Zephaniah – Divided Kingdom • Written by Zephaniah around 600 BC • Spiritual reform in Judah…finally!

  33. The Writing of the OT - Prophetical • Haggai – Post-Exile • Written by Haggai around 520 BC • Motivate the home-comers • Zechariah – Post-Exile • Written by Zechariah around 520 BC • Sequel to Haggai • Malachi – Post-Exile • Written by Malachi around 400 BC • Last of the prophets until John the Baptizer

  34. Gathering of the Old Testament Canon • Not all of our answers to the canon question will be answered and we will have to trust God about those things. • What kind of evidence would someone expect to have for certain things? • The lack of evidence does not mean no evidence.

  35. Gathering the Old Testament Canon • Started with Moses after Sinai, then Joshua continued (see above) • Kept and read as they were written throughout periods of OT history • Meticulously copied by Scribes… every “jot and tittle” • Jewish Tradition has Ezra gathering it all into one collection sometime contemporary to Malachi • Jews kept copies of the OT as we know it today in the Temple • Distributed when the synagogue system began

  36. Gathering the Old Testament Canon The Bible itself is the best witness to the authority of the OT: • Over 690 quotes of OT in the NT • Over 4100 quotes and references to OT events and people • 21 NT books quote the OT directly. Of the remaining 6, 3 allude or refer to OT • Jesus quotes OT 60 times and 24 different books • Apostle Paul quotes/alludes over 100 times • Only 5 OT books are not quoted (Ezra, Nehemiah, Esther, Ecclesiastes, and the Song of Songs)

  37. Gathering the Old Testament Canon • What do the following passages have to do with the OT canon?

  38. Gathering of the Old Testament Canon • Deuteronomy 4:2 • 2 Do not add to what I command you and do not subtract from it, but keep the commands of the Lord your God that I give you.

  39. Gathering of the Old Testament Canon • Deuteronomy 4:2 • 2Do not add to what I command you and do not subtract from it, but keep the commands of the Lord your God that I give you. • God commands to not add or subtract anything to God’s Word. God can, but not people.

  40. Gathering of the Old Testament Canon • 2 Kings 22:11–13 • 11 When the king heard the words of the Book of the Law, he tore his robes. 12 He gave these orders to Hilkiah the priest, Ahikam son of Shaphan, Acbor son of Micaiah, Shaphanthe secretary and Asaiah the king’s attendant: 13 “Go and inquire of the Lord for me and for the people and for all Judah about what is written in this book that has been found. Great is the Lord’s anger that burns against us because our fathers have not obeyed the words of this book; they have not acted in accordance with all that is written there concerning us.”

  41. Gathering of the Old Testament Canon • 2 Kings 22:11–13 • 11When the king heard the words of the Book of the Law, he tore his robes. 12 He gave these orders to Hilkiah the priest, Ahikam son of Shaphan, Acbor son of Micaiah, Shaphanthe secretary and Asaiah the king’s attendant: 13 “Go and inquire of the Lord for me and for the people and for all Judah about what is written in this book that has been found. Great is the Lord’s anger that burns against us because our fathers have not obeyed the words of this book; they have not acted in accordance with all that is written there concerning us.” • Josiah treated what they found as God’s Word and listened to it. (The main problem at this time was idolatry, so they most likely found Deuteronomy, which deals with idolatry.)

  42. Gathering of the Old Testament Canon • 2 Chronicles 34:19–21 • 19 When the king heard the words of the Law, he tore his robes. 20 He gave these orders to Hilkiah, Ahikam son of Shaphan, Abdon son of Micah, Shaphan the secretary and Asaiah the king’s attendant: 21 “Go and inquire of the Lord for me and for the remnant in Israel and Judah about what is written in this book that has been found. Great is the Lord’s anger that is poured out on us because our fathers have not kept the word of the Lord; they have not acted in accordance with all that is written in this book.”

  43. Gathering of the Old Testament Canon • 2 Chronicles 34:19–21 • 19 When the king heard the words of the Law, he tore his robes. 20 He gave these orders to Hilkiah, Ahikam son of Shaphan, Abdon son of Micah, Shaphan the secretary and Asaiah the king’s attendant: 21 “Go and inquire of the Lord for me and for the remnant in Israel and Judah about what is written in this book that has been found. Great is the Lord’s anger that is poured out on us because our fathers have not kept the word of the Lord; they have not acted in accordance with all that is written in this book.” • Josiah equates what he just heard as the world of the Lord

  44. Gathering of the Old Testament Canon • Daniel 9:2 • 2 in the first year of his reign, I, Daniel, understood from the Scriptures, according to the word of the Lord given to Jeremiah the prophet, that the desolation of Jerusalem would last seventy years.

  45. Gathering of the Old Testament Canon • Daniel 9:2 • 2 in the first year of his reign, I, Daniel, understood from the Scriptures, according to the word of the Lord given to Jeremiah the prophet, that the desolation of Jerusalem would last seventy years. • Daniel (a contemporary of Jeremiah) knew what Jeremiah wrote (or what Jeremiah dictated and his scribe wrote) and called it “Scriptures”

  46. Gathering of the Old Testament Canon • Nehemiah 8:1–3 • 1 all the people assembled as one man in the square before the Water Gate. They told Ezra the scribe to bring out the Book of the Law of Moses, which the Lord had commanded for Israel. 2 So on the first day of the seventh month Ezra the priest brought the Law before the assembly, which was made up of men and women and all who were able to understand. 3 He read it aloud from daybreak till noon as he faced the square before the Water Gate in the presence of the men, women and others who could understand. And all the people listened attentively to the Book of the Law.

  47. Gathering of the Old Testament Canon • Nehemiah 8:1–3 • 1 all the people assembled as one man in the square before the Water Gate. They told Ezra the scribe to bring out the Book of the Law of Moses, which the Lord had commanded for Israel. 2 So on the first day of the seventh month Ezra the priest brought the Law before the assembly, which was made up of men and women and all who were able to understand. 3He read it aloud from daybreak till noon as he faced the square before the Water Gate in the presence of the men, women and others who could understand. And all the people listened attentively to the Book of the Law. • Book of the Law of Moses was around and able to be read. In the timeframe that Ezra had (6 hrs), a person can read the entire Pentateuch.

  48. Gathering of the Old Testament Canon • Matthew 23:35 • 35 And so upon you will come all the righteous blood that has been shed on earth, from the blood of righteous Abel to the blood of Zechariah son of Berekiah, whom you murdered between the temple and the altar.

  49. Gathering of the Old Testament Canon • Matthew 23:35 • 35 And so upon you will come all the righteous blood that has been shed on earth, from the blood of righteous Abel to the blood of Zechariah son of Berekiah, whom you murdered between the temple and the altar. • Like our from A to Z, Abel’s murder was in Genesis (first book) and Zechariah’s in Chronicles (last book in Jewish order of books)

  50. Gathering of the Old Testament Canon • Luke 16:29–31 • 29 “Abraham replied, ‘They have Moses and the Prophets; let them listen to them.’ 30 “ ‘No, father Abraham,’ he said, ‘but if someone from the dead goes to them, they will repent.’ 31 “He said to him, ‘If they do not listen to Moses and the Prophets, they will not be convinced even if someone rises from the dead.’ ”