Water Use Efficiency in Egypt Dr. Mohamed. N. Allam Dr. Ragab Abdel Azim
Water Resources in Egypt • Nile River is the main source of renewable water in Egypt (55.5MBCM/Y) • Rainfall is very limited and dominates on the north coast of Egypt (0.5 MCM/y) • Deep groundwater is mainly in Western Desert and Sinai (very limited, non-renewable and costly) • In Addition to the re-use of: • Agricultural Drainage Water • Groundwater • Treated sewage Water
Water Demands Water Users: • Agriculture (85% of the total Demand) • Municipal • Industry • Hydropower Generation • Navigation 15%
Current Water (Climatologically)Management Zoning III • 3 zones: • Upper Egypt (1.0 MF) • Middle Egypt (1.5 MF) • Delta (5.7 MF) II I Cultivated Area 8.2 MF
Cultivated Land • The cultivated land are estimated now by about 8.2 million feddan. • Out of this area 5.5 million feddan are old alluvial soils while the rest (2.7 million feddan) is old and newly reclaimed land. This newly reclaimed land is basically of sandy and calcareous nature.
Irrigation Methods • Surface and improved surface irrigation are the main methods used in the old alluvial soils. At the same time, there are some areas where sprinkler and drip irrigation are practiced, i.e. some of those are cultivated by fruit trees and vegetables. • In the newly reclaimed land (sandy and calcareous soils) the use of sprinkler/drip is a must by law.
Cropping Pattern and Crop Rotations • The common rotations are the 2-year and 3-year rotations • Areas specialized in vegetable crop production usually have three or four crops a year. • Permanent or perennial crops include sugar cane and orchards
Cropping Pattern and Crop Rotations Other two practices are followed now in the cropping system: Relay cropping, involving the sowing of a new crop with the last irrigation application of the grown crop. The two crops overlap for a short period of time before harvesting the first (grown) crop (sowing clover in the field of rice and maize). Intercropping, where a secondary crop is grown simultaneously with the main crop (planting onion at the same time with cotton and harvesting it in June, while the cotton crop continues until September another example is planting broad beans as a winter crop in the sugarcane fields in the sugarcane belt in the southern part of the country.
Water Balance and Efficiency Overall Water use Efficiency = 72%
Actions for Better Water Management • Integrated Water Management • Water Resources • Quantity and Quality • Participation of All users • Physical improvement • Rehabilitation of Water structures • Irrigation Improvement Project • Institutional Arrangements • Water Boards • Water Users Associations • Irrigation Advisory services • Extension services (Agriculture) • Legal Requirements • Modification of Law 48 • Modification of Law 12 • On-Farm Water Management • Practices to increase water application and use efficiencies.