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The State of Water Use Efficiency in South Africa

The State of Water Use Efficiency in South Africa

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The State of Water Use Efficiency in South Africa

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  1. The State of Water Use Efficiency in South Africa Towards Regulating Water Conservation and Water Demand Management Cain Chunda and Chabedi Tsatsi Water Use Efficiency 01 November 2006

  2. Presentation Outline • Introduction • Extent of Water Losses and Wastages: A Local Government Focus • Causes of Water Losses & Wastages: A Local Government Focus • Recommended Interventions and work in progress • Benefits and Success Stories of Water Conservation and Water Demand Management

  3. Introduction • Water is a vital natural resource because it is fundamental to life. Although it is a key indispensable natural resource, water in South Africa is very scarce. • Water in South Africa is being transferred over long distances on very large scales which means the performance of all water providers should be monitored and improved. • The NWA, 1998 is founded on the central principles of equity,efficiency and sustainability.

  4. Extent of Water Losses and Wastages: NRW Non-Revenue Water refers to the total of apparent losses, real losses and the proportion of authorised consumption, which is not billed.

  5. Breakdown of Rand Water Urban Demands

  6. Water used by main urban centres in the Vaal River System

  7. Growth in demand of main demand centres JOHANNESBURG EKURHULENI VOLUME (mill m3 / annum) TSHWANE EMFULENI

  8. Revenue Water Billed and paid for consumption Free basic water Billed @ zero rate Billed but not paid for consumption System Input Volume Apparent Losses Non Revenue Water UARL Potential saving on physical leakage Water Demand Increases and Non-Revenue Water within Municipalities

  9. Billed and paid for Consumption 1 848 000 m3/annum 5% Free basic water 7 246 000 m3/annum 20% System Input Volume 36 962 000 m3/annum Apparent losses 1 396 000 m3/annum 4% UARL (2 to 3 times) 4 396 000 m3/annum 12% Potential saving on physical leakage and inefficient consumption 22 300 000 m3/annum 59% SebokengEvatonWaterBalance

  10. Water Demand Increases and Non-Revenue Water within Municipalities

  11. Water Demand Increases and Non-Revenue Water within Municipalities

  12. Water Demand Increases and Non-Revenue Water within Municipalities

  13. Water Demand Increases and Non-Revenue Water within Municipalities

  14. Water Demand Increases and Non-Revenue Water within Municipalities

  15. Water Demand Increases and Non-Revenue Water within Municipalities

  16. Water Demand Increases and Non-Revenue Water within Municipalities

  17. Water Demand Increases and Non-Revenue Water within Municipalities

  18. Summary of Estimated NRW

  19. Non-Revenue Water refers to the total of apparent, real losses and the proportion of authorised consumption, which is not billed • 390 million m3 of water lost through Non-Revenue Water is a massively huge amount of water FAR IN EXCESS OF THE NEXT AUGMENTATION SCHEME FROM LESOTHO @ R15billion.

  20. Where is this water going? Connection Burst Leaking Valve

  21. Where is this water going? Leak repairs Connection Burst

  22. Where is this water going? Leaking Taps

  23. Where is this water going? Running tap inside school Leaking Taps and Urinals at schools

  24. Where is this water going? Reservoir Leakage Leaking Taps and Urinals

  25. IT’S ALSO CAUSING ACCIDENTS!!! Photo courtesy Willem Wegelin

  26. Causes of the water losses and wastages • Lack of dedicated financial resources to support implementation of water conservation and demand management interventions including O and M. • Lack of institutional commitment and regulatory tools to enforce implementation of WC/WDM as per the NWA, 1998 and the WC/WDM Strategies resulting in: • Old dilapidated infrastructure (physical leakages), • Institutional capacity (billing systems and auditing), • Education and awareness (consumer behaviour to water), • Political leadership at provincial and local level (technical managers complain of not getting support to implement with budgets being reduced or not availed for WC/WDM).

  27. Work In Progress: Institutional Interventions • Institutionalising WC/WDM through regional office structure • Developing protocols & governance tools for WC/WDM: • WC/WDM conditions for WUA, • WC/WDM sector Guidelines, • WC/WDM Training Manuals, • WC/WDM Info. System, • WC/WDM Regulations.

  28. Work In Progress: Implementation Support WMA situation assessment studies • Developing WC/WDM Strategies and implementation plans for the following WMAs in support of Water Allocation Reform: • Olifants WMA (Mpumalanga and Limpopo), • Inkomati WMA (Mpumalanga), • Mvoti-Mzimkhulu WMA (Kwa-Zulu Natal), • Uthukela WMA (Kwa-Zulu Natal), • Usuthu-Mhlathuze WMA (Kwa-Zulu Natal), and • Upper and Middle Vaal WMAs, • Mokolo Catchment.

  29. Work In Progress: Implementation Support Municipal support interventions • Providing support (financial and technical) to municipalities to develop and implement water conservation and water demand management viz. • Emfuleni (Gauteng), • Umkhanyakude, Uthungulu and Zululand Districts (Kwa-Zulu Natal), • Nelson Mandela and Buffalo City (Eastern Cape), • Ramotshere Moiloa, Rustenburg (North West), • City of Johannesburg, Tshwane, Ekurhuleni, Sedibeng, Dr JS Moroka, etc (Gauteng/Mpumalanga), and • Matjhabeng, Moqhaka LM (Free State), • Lephalale, Greater Tzaneen, Capricon, Sekhukhune DM (Limpopo).

  30. Retrofitting & Metering Pressure Management Billed and paid for consumption Free basic water Billed @ zero rate Billed but not paid for consumption Mains Replacement Apparent Losses ALC Other (Bylaws, sectorising, awareness) UARL Potential saving on physical leakage Scope for water conservation and Demand Management Where can savings be made ?(addressing only the wastage and not the billed and paid for consumption)

  31. Recommended Interventions and Work in Progress • Develop National Regulations for WC/WDM to address amongst others the: • Setting of national water use efficiency standards, • Setting of national, provincial and local specifications for housing developments with respect to water efficient plumbing devices, • National labelling of water efficient devices, • Enforcement of WC/WDM through provincial legislation & local bylaws, • Setting penalties for wasteful use of water within public buildings, • Provision of incentives for achieving WC/WDM targets and benchmarks. • The Department is already in process of developing these regulations

  32. Recommended Interventions and Work in Progress • Establishment of a National Water Demand Revolving Fund to support water conservation and demand management programmes: • Australia, USA, and other efficient countries have such dedicated funds in place for facilitating uptake of WC/WDM. • In SA Eskom is piloting an excellent similar initiative through its Demand Side Management (DSM) Fund for energy efficiency. • Discussions are ongoing with institutions such as TCTA to explore possibilities for funding WC/WDM interventions at a reasonable tariff recovery rate.

  33. Recommended Interventions and Work in Progress Backlog of Maintenance before which certain WDM measures cannot be implemented Other WDM Interventions Quick fix WDM interventions: Indirect WDM measures Valve maintenance and repair, Pipe replacement; Bulk Meter replacement Domestic meter replacement; Replacement and repair of water towers etc Full sectorising Proper billing and cost recovery MIS and analysis of Minimum Night flows etc Certain Bylaws Pressure management; Leak location & Repair Manage impact of inefficient garden irrigation etc Schools awareness Public Awareness CLO’s & door to door discussions Billing and Payment for water

  34. Return on Investment on Water Conservation and Water Demand Management (Municipal Revenue) • Emfuleni Local Municipality we invested R8m in WDM and we are saving in excess of 9million cubic metres of water and well over R24m per annum to the municipality • City of Johannesburg through Operation Q’cina Amanzi invested has invested R 600 million over a period of five years to save 60 million of water which would have cost new infrastructure scheme of over R 5 billion. • In Vaal River System we can invest an estimated R3billion on WC/WDM to make available to save in excess of R15billion worth of augmentation scheme either from Lesotho or Thukela

  35. Return on Investment on Water Conservation and Water Demand Management (WAR)

  36. Return on Investment on Water Conservation and Water Demand Management • Create an informed public regarding WC/WDM • Create the culture of WC/WDM through water use institutions • Promote and enforce water wise behaviour • Capacitate water utilities and institutions on WC/WDM • Improve service delivery • Address socio economic development of local communities through job creation

  37. THANK YOU