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  1. aeration tank sedimentation basin Q3, S3, X3 Q1, S1, X1 inlet effluent V2,X2, S2 O2 QR, SR, XR Q5, S5, X5 recycling sludge excess sludge ACTIVATED SLUDGE PLANT Q: wastewater volume (m3/d) S: BOD5 concentration = soluble substrate (mg/L  S1=120-400 mg/L) X: concentration of biomass (sludge) (mg/L, g/L  X2=3-6 g/L) V: volume (m3)

  2. Q3, S3, X3 Q1, S1, X1 V2,X2, S2 Q5, S5, X5 Q4, S4, X4 • Mass balance: Inflow rate = outflow rate • Q1 = Q = Q3+Q5  Q3 = Q1-Q5(Q3 = Q-Qw) • In the aeration tank and in outflow streams the same dissolved organic matter (substrate) concentration • S4 = S5 = S3 = S • In waste streams the same biomass concentration • X4 = X5 = XR

  3. Q, S0, X0 (Q-Qw), S, Xe V,X, S Qw, S, XR Qr, S, XR V: reactor (aeration tank) volume, m3 Q: influent flow rate (m3/d) X0: concentration of biomass in the effluent (g VSS/m3) Qw: waste sludge flow rate(m3/d) Xe: concentration of biomass in effluent (g VSS/m3) XR: concentration of biomass in return line from clarifier (g VSS/m3)

  4. Q, S0, X0 (Q-Qw), S, Xe V,X, S Qw, S, XR Qr, S, XR • Treatment efficiency: • E = (S0-S)/S0 • Recycle rate: • ratio of return sludge volume to raw wastewater volume • R = Qr/Q

  5. Q, S0, X0 (Q-Qw), S, Xe V,X, S Qw, S, XR Qr, S, XR • Volumetric organic loading rate (volumetric load): • Organic matter BOD (or COD) applied to the aeration tank volume per day • BV= Q×S0/V = 0.3-3 kg BOD5/m3d

  6. Q, S0, X0 (Q-Qw), S, Xe V,X, S Qw, S, XR Qr, S, XR • Sludge load: • Organic matter load applied to unit mass of sludge (biomass) • BX = Q×S0/ (V× X) kg BOD5/kg VSS/d • 0.8-1.5 kg BOD5/kg VSS/d  high load • 0.3-0.8 kg BOD5/kg VSS/d  normal load • 0.05-0.3 kg BOD5/kg VSS/d  low load

  7. Q, S0, X0 (Q-Qw), S, Xe V,X, S Qw, S, XR Qr, S, XR • Sludge production: • FSP = Xe×(Q-Qe)+ XR×QW– (X0×Qe) • can be expressed by yield (= g biomass produced/g substrate utilized) • Excess sludge production: • QW×XR 0

  8. Q, S0, X0 (Q-Qw), S, Xe V,X, S Qw, S, XR Qr, S, XR • Sludge age (solid retention time): • average time during which the sludge has remained in the system • SRT = X = (V× X)/ (Xe×(Q-Qw) + XR×QW) d • kg sludge present in the areation tank • sludge leaving the system kg/d • SRT < 2 days  high load • SRT = 2-6 days  normal load • SRT > 6 days  low load


  10. SLUDGE VOLUME INDEX SVI = (settled volume of sludge, mL/L)(1000 mg/g)/(suspended solids, mg/L) = mL/g

  11. TERTIARY TREATMENT (PHYSICO-CHEMICAL TREATMENT) pH control Nitrogen removal (ammonia stripping) Stripping (volatile organic compounds) Filtration Adsorption Chemical phosphorus removal

  12. pH CONTROL Treatment processes (biological, chemical) have optimal pH range Communal wastewaters: pH between 6.5-8.5 If not  pH adjustments (biological treatment) + Assuring the stability of pH (buffering capacity) – NaHCO3

  13. pH CONTROL CaO, Ca(OH)2 Cheap, but with CO2CaCO3 (not suitable for pH control) Only rough control NaOH Expensive No effect of CO2 Fine control H2SO4 Easy to calculate and apply accurately Concentrated sulphuric acid is dangerous HCl Good control Volatile – corrosion CO2 Very rough control (weak acid)

  14. STRIPPING Mass transfer of a gas from the liquid phase to the gas phase The liquid is stripped with another gas (usually air) Removal of ammonia, odorous gases, volatile organic compounds

  15. STRIPPING Nitrogen (ammonia) removal at high loaded biological WWTP or at low temperature there is no significant nitrification ammonia stripping is the most suitable ratio of ammonia (gas) -ammonium depends on pH NH4+ NH3 + H+ between pH 10.5-11.0 mostly NH3

  16. STEPS OF NH3 STRIPPING pH control ( increase it to 10.5-11.0) – usually by lime air stripping (intensive aeration of water) sedimentation

  17. STRIPPING OF VOLATILE COMPOUNDS Hydrocarbons Organic solvents Chlorinated hydrocarbons Aromatic compounds

  18. STRIPPING OF HYDROGEN SULPHIDE The problem of hydrogen sulphide – odour, corrosion Stripping and oxidation 2H2S + O2 2S + 2H2O Other possibilities pH change (liming) Oxidation of H2S (nitrate feeding) Conversion to non-soluble form (precipitation with iron(III)-hydroxide)

  19. SULPHIDE REMOVAL DUE TO PRECIPITATION WITH IRON-SALTS • Fe(III) ion reacts easily with sulphide ions - weakly water soluble compounds are formed • dissolved sulphides can be precipitated rapidly in the presence of ferric salts (0.2-0.3 mmol/l) • <5 mg/l sulphide in raw sewage - less than 0.1 mg/l after treatment • precipitation is not significant in case of aluminium salt

  20. ADSORPTION Adsorption is the physical and/or chemical process in which a compound is accumulated at an interface between phases (solid-liquid interface). Adsorbate: the substance being removed from the liquid phase to the interface Adsorbent:the solid phase on which the accumulation occurs.

  21. ADSORPTION Ion exchange adsorption = ions of a given species are displaced from an insoluble exchange material by ions of a different species in solution - softening Ion change on natural matters (zeolite) – softening, ammonia removal Ion change on ion exchange resin (synthetic aluminosilicates, phenolic polymers) Adsorption on activated carbon PAC GAC adsorbers

  22. ADSORPTION ON ACTIVATED CARBON Activated carbon is able to remove dissolved organic substances from water directly. The problem is that activated carbon is not specific for pollutants, so during the activated carbon adsorption a lot of natural, non-pollutant type organic matters will be removed as well. The activated carbon adsorption is almost the only process for removal of organic micropollutants from water. The activated carbon is applied in two forms: powdered activated carbon = PAC (one time use) and granular activated carbon = GAC (usable till saturation of adsorbent). The granular activated carbon has higher specific organic matter removal capacity than powdered activated carbon. Although the powdered activated carbon is cheaper than granular, for long time, permanent applying the granular activated carbon is more economical.

  23. ACTIVATED CARBON Water flows through the column filled with granulated activated carbon chance of contact is high  more efficient adsorption  widespread GAC Activated carbon powder is mixed into the water chance of contact is lower (in the water it is not possible to achieve as high activated carbon concentration as in GAC) - cheaper PAC • granulated – filled into a tower • powdered – mixed into the water

  24. CHEMICAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT • Definition of chemical wastewater treatment: • WIDER SENSE: • treatment of wastewaters with chemical methods • chemical coagulation • chemical precipitation (removal of P and heavy metals) • chemical disinfection • advanced oxidation processes • ion exchange • chemical neutralization • MORE SPECIFIC: • addition of Fe-, Al-, Ca-, Mg-salts with the aim of phosphorus or organic removal

  25. CHEMICAL PHOSPHORUS REMOVAL • Phosphorus removal (chemical precipitation) • Al3+ + PO43-AlPO4 • = converting of dissolved P compounds to a low solubility metal • phosphate (through use of a metal salt) • Precipitants: • Aluminium salts • Iron salts • Lime

  26. CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION OF PHOSPHORUS Precipitation chemicals precipitate the dissolved inorganic phosphates as insoluble compounds (to be more exact: compounds with small solubility) At the same time metal-hydroxides are formed  jelly-like flocs which bind the precipitated metal phosphates and any other suspended substances in the water (coagulation-flocculation) This also removes organically combined P, as the amount of suspended matter is greatly reduced by chemical precipitation

  27. CHEMICAL PHOSPHORUS REMOVAL • Phosphorus removal (chemical precipitation) • Al3+ + PO43-AlPO4 • Removal of organic matter (coagulation-flocculation) • Al3+aluminium-hydroxide • Good coagulant: contacts suspended matters (mainly organics) of wastewater rapidly and strongly • Organics are originally mainly in colloid form – do not settle well – settling characteristics can be improved due to coagulation-flocculation

  28. Coagulation: • destabilization of the colloidal particles • Flocculation: • increase the size of flocs

  29. CHEMICAL TREATMENT • as the only treatment process • primary (direct) precipitation • or in combination with biological treatment processes • pre-precipitation • simultaneous precipitation • post-precipitation significant part of the organic pollutants is connected to suspended solids  increasing of their removal efficiency in the primary settling tank results low organic pollutant load in the activated sludge processes

  30. CHEMICAL PHOSPHORUS REMOVAL • Addition of calcium • Usually in the form of lime (Ca(OH)2) • Reacts with the natural bicarbonate alkalinity to precipitate CaCO3 • As the pH increases beyond 10, excess Ca ions react with the phosphate to precipitate hydroxylapatite • 10 Ca2+ + 6 PO43- + 2 OH- Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2 • pH has to be adjusted back before biological treatment • No simultaneous P removal can be applied

  31. CHEMICAL PHOSPHORUS REMOVAL • Addition of aluminium or iron • Al3+ + HnPO43-n AlPO4 + nH+ • Fe3+ + HnPO43-n FePO4 + nH+ • 1 mole aluminium or iron ion will precipitate 1 mole of phosphate • Many competing reactions • We can not estimate the required dosage based on stoichiometry • Dosages established based on bench-scale tests • Solubility of AlPO4 is the smallest around pH = 6 • Solubility of FePO4 is the smallest around pH = 5


  33. PRE-PRECIPITATION metal salt min min activated sludge basin screen grit chamber flocculator sedimentation sedimentation BOD removal  90% TP removal > 90%

  34. PRE-PRECIPITATION Direct precipitation followed by a biological treatment stage Introduced to biological treatment plants to reduce the loading to the biological stage Reduction in energy consumption and in hydraulic retention time

  35. SIMULTANEOUS PRECIPITATION metal salt min screen grit chamber sedimentation sedimentation activated sludge basin BOD removal: 90% TP removal: 75-90%

  36. SIMULTANEOUS PRECIPITATION Phosphorus is chemically precipitated at the same time as biological treatment in an activated sludge process The biological stage also serves as a flocculation tank, with bothe the biological and chemical sludge being separated in a subsequent stage Results 1 mg/L TP

  37. POST-PRECIPITATION metal salt 20 min 10 min coagulation tank and flocculator activated sludge basin screen sedimentation grit chamber sedimentation sedimentation BOD removal  90% TP removal > 95%

  38. POST-PRECIPITATION Phosphorus is separated from biologically treated water in a separate post-treatment stage TP below 0.5 mg/L

  39. 1-litre glass cylinders with Kemira's flocculator device COAGULATION-FLOCCULATION LABORATORY JAR TESTS • to compare the efficiency of different coagulants • to determine optimal dosage


  41. RESIDUAL CODCR CONCENTRATIONS VS. COAGULANT DOSAGE dissolved CODCr: 227-405 mg/l 50-85% of the total organic matter