COM 343: HISTORY OF PHOTOGRAPHY Lesson3: BEGINNINGS OF PHOTOGRAPHY Eadweard Muybridge: Motion Picture Metin Ersoy Faculty of Communication and Media Studies
Lesson3: BEGINNINGS OF PHOTOGRAPHY • Capturing movement • Faster shutter speeds ability to ”stop” motion • Do a galloping horse’s four legs ever leave the ground at once” • Eadweard Muybrigde proved it in 1878
Lesson3: BEGINNINGS OF PHOTOGRAPHY PHOTOGRAPHY IN COLOUR • Though the invention of photography had an immediate impact on the whole art world, the early photographs were in monochrome. • As an additional service, daguerreotypes could be hand- painted, which kept a number of painters of miniatures in business. However, it was to be some time before colour photography was to become a reality.
Lesson3: BEGINNINGS OF PHOTOGRAPHY • In the 1860s James Clerk Maxwell, using as a subject a tartan ribbon, showed that three monochrome images could be formed of a subject, each one taken using a different colour filter (red, blue and green). • By projecting these images using three lanterns, each equipped with a corresponding filter, the colours could be recreated.
Lesson3: BEGINNINGS OF PHOTOGRAPHY James Clerk Maxwell
Lesson3: BEGINNINGS OF PHOTOGRAPHY • The results were somewhat disappointing to Maxwell and his collaborator Thomas Sutton, but nevertheless they deserve the credit for laying the foundations of trichromate colour photography. • Interestingly, strictly speaking this experiment should never have worked!
Lesson3: BEGINNINGS OF PHOTOAGRAPHY • Du Hauron was a French scientist who made a major contribution to the development of colour photography. • Unfortunately, his theories could not be put to the test at the time, because of the lack of suitable materials. However, it is this principle which is used in present-day colour photography.
Lesson3: BEGINNINGS OF PHOTOAGRAPHY Du Hauron
Lesson3: BEGINNINGS OF PHOTOAGRAPHY • In the mid 1930s that Kodak was to produce a film based on this principle, to be named Kodachrome; up till then the additive methods suggested by Maxwell had been used.
Lesson3: BEGINNINGS OF PHOTOGRAPHY • Eastman wanted to simplify photography and make it available to everyone. In 1883, Eastman announced film in rolls.
Lesson3: BEGINNINGS OF PHOTOGRAPHY • "Kodak" was born in 1888 when the first Kodak camera entered the market. Pre-loaded with enough film for 100 exposures, the camera could easily be carried and handheld for operation. • After exposure, the whole camera was returned to the company in Rochester, New York, where the film was developed, prints were made, new film was inserted, and then returned to the customer.
Lesson3: BEGINNINGS OF PHOTOGRAPHY • By 1888, George Eastman creates the Eastman Kodak Company • Develops a camera that used his newly developed technology, roll film. • “You press the button, we do the rest”
Lesson3: BEGINNINGS OF PHOTOGRAPHY • Eastman Kodak • By 1935, Kodak had experimented and developed the first color film, Kodachrome. Again, processing had to be done at the factory, but it was instantly successful. • Film photography would continue to evolve over the years, paving the way for innovation and advancements.
Lesson3: BEGINNINGS OF PHOTOGRAPHY • FORERUNNER OF MODERN PH • (End of the century) Arguments of photographic’s purpose • Is it for recording, may it be manipulated? • Can it be a form of art? • Documentary photography started • used to convince and persuade people to take certain action
Lesson3: BEGINNINGS OF PHOTOGRAPHY • TURN OF THE CENTURY • Pictorialism • Rise of art photography • Pictorialism, was a photographic movement in vogue from around 1885 following the widespread introduction of the dry-plate process. It reached its height in the early years of the 20th century, and declined rapidly after 1914 after the widespread emergence of Modernism. • Artists manipulated the image used a process called Gum Bichromate • Less detail and more of an artistic image • Usually colored with oil paints
Lesson3: BEGINNINGS OF PHOTOGRAPHY • Émile Joachim Constant PuyoThe Straw Hat, ca. 1905-1910 Oil pigment print
Lesson3: BEGINNINGS OF PHOTOGRAPHY • NEW GENERATION • Straight photography began around 1920’s • Away from pictorial style • More sharp and unmanipulated approach • Let photographs look like photographs
Lesson3: BEGINNINGS OF PHOTOGRAPHY • Paul Strand, Wall Street, 1915
Lesson3: BEGINNINGS OF PHOTOGRAPHY • NEW OBJECTIVE • In 1925 ”new vision” started • Experimenting with new angles of view • sharp upward angle shots • undershots • detail • contrast Noel Griggs, Chimney, 1934
Alfred Eisenstaedt, V-Day, 1945 Lesson3: BEGINNINGS OF PHOTOGRAPHY • DIFFERENT STYLES • Portraying life began around 1930’s • After II WW grew an interest to cultures, lifestyles and characters of other people • 1960’s pop art and erotic photography • In 1980’s photographs were no longer concerned with reality Jeff Wall, Milk, 1984
Lesson3: BEGINNINGS OF PHOTOGRAPHY • Photography begun in 1839 • Medium has changed a lot • black and white color ( pixels) • plates paper film digital • Still the same principal idea • Two vital elements: Optical and chemical • Non verbal means of communication
Lesson3: BEGINNINGS OF PHOTOGRAPHY • TOPICS FOR NEXT WEEK • Light, • and Photo Machines