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Block 1 Sanitation

Block 1 Sanitation. Academy of Culinary Arts Chef B. Johns. Review Week 1. Chapters 1-6 Question and answer Discussion Study Questions. Chapter 7. The Flow of Food: Preparation Thawing food Correctly Preventing time-temperature abuse Cooking to minimum internal temperatures

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Block 1 Sanitation

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  1. Block 1Sanitation Academy of Culinary Arts Chef B. Johns

  2. Review Week 1 • Chapters 1-6 • Question and answer • Discussion • Study Questions

  3. Chapter 7 • The Flow of Food: Preparation • Thawing food Correctly • Preventing time-temperature abuse • Cooking to minimum internal temperatures • Cooling and reheating food to the right temperatures in the right amount of time

  4. General Safe Preparation Practices • Equipment: Make sure all work stations, cutting boards, and utensils are clean and sanitized • Quantity: Only remove from refrigeration what you can prep in a short period of time; prep in small batches • Storage: Return prepped food to refrigeration or cook it as quickly as possible

  5. Thawing • Freezing does not kill pathogens. If exposed to Temperature danger zone the pathogens will begin to grow • MUST THAW BY ONE OF THESE METHODS: • In a refrigerator at 41 degrees or lower • Under potable running water of 70 degrees or lower • Microwave can be used if food will be cooked immediately after • As part of the cooking process (Hambergers)

  6. Prepping Produce • Prevent Cross contamination: make sure fruit and vegetables do not touch surfaces that were exposed to raw meat or poultry. • Washing: Wash fruit and vegetables thoroughly under running water before cutting or combining with other ingredients • Do not mix multiple batches of the same item or different items if soaking or storing in standing water • Refrigerate fresh cut produce at 41 degrees or lower • Do Not serve raw seed sprouts to high risk populations

  7. Batters and Breading • Generally made from eggs and milk and run the risk of time-temperature abuse and cross contamination • Prep in small batches – store what you don’t need at 41 degrees or lower • Throw out any unused batter or breading after a set period of time; either after a batch or end of shift • Do not use same batter for different types of foods because of food allergies

  8. Eggs and Egg Mixtures • Pooled eggs: If allowed by local health department need to be handled carefully • Cook promptly or store at 41 degrees or lower • Wash and sanitize the containers between batches • Pasteurized Eggs: • Should be used in dishes that need little or no cooking • Especially to high risk populations • Can us whole eggs if cooking all the way – cakes, omletes

  9. Salads Containing TCS Foods • Chicken, tuna, egg, pasta, and potato salads have all been involved in foodborne illness outbreaks. • They are not usually cooked after preparation • Means you do not have a chance to get rid of any pathogens that may have gotten in salad when made • If using leftovers TCS foods to make salads make sure they are handled properly • Make sure leftover food held at 41 degrees or lower are thrown away after seven days. Check use by dates

  10. Fresh Juice Package On-Site • Must have a HACCP plan • If not treated (pasteurized) it must be labeled stating that it has not been treated and may contain harmful bacteria

  11. Ice • Must be made from potable water • Never use as an ingredient if it was used to keep food cold • Store in clean, sanitized containers and use ice scoops to transfer ice. • Store ice scoops outside of ice machine • Never use a glass to scoop ice

  12. Practices Requiring a Variance • May have to submit a HACCP plan • You need a variance : • Smoking food as a way to preserve it • Using additives to preserve food so that is no longer needs time temperature control for safety. • Curing food • Custom processing (Dressing deer) • Packaging food using reduced oxygen packaging • Sprouting seeds or beans • Offering live molluscan shellfish from a display tank

  13. Cooking Food • The only way to reduce pathogens in food to safe levels is to cook it to its minimum internal temperature • Temperatures are different for different foods • If customer requests a lower temperature they have to be informed of the risks • Cooking Reduces pathogens in food, But it does not destroy spores or toxins they may have produced. Always handle food correctly.

  14. How to Check Temperatures • Pick a thermometer with the correct probe • Check the temperature in the thickest part of the food • Take at least two readings in different locations

  15. Temperature Requirements • 165 degrees for 15 seconds • Poultry: Whole and ground chicken, turkey, duck,etc. • Stuffing made with TCS ingredients • Stuffed meats, seafood, poultry, or pasta • Leftovers, anything that includes previously cooked TCS ingredients • 155 Degrees for 15 seconds • Ground meat: beef, pork, etc. • Injected meats: Ham, flavor injected roasts • Ground Seafood: Including chopped or minced • Eggs that will be hot-held for service

  16. Temperature Requirements, con’t. • 145 degrees for 15 seconds • Seafood: fish, shellfish, and crustaceans • Steaks/Chops of pork, beef, veal, and lamb • Eggs served to order • 145 degrees for 4 minutes • Roasts of pork, beef, veal, or lamb • 135 degrees • Commercially processed, ready to eat food (Cheese sticks, fried vegetables, etc) • Fruit, vegetables, grains, and legumes that will be held for service

  17. Cooking TCS Foods In Microwave • Meat, seafood, poultry, and eggs cooked in microwave must be cooked to 165 degrees • Food should be covered • Rotate and stir halfway through • Let stand for 2 minutes after cooking • Check temperature in at least 2 places

  18. Consumer Advisories • Discloser: If your menu includes TCS items that are raw or undercooked, you must note it on the menu next to these items • Reminder: If customers order food that is raw or undercooked you must advise them of the risk of food borne illness. This can be on menu, table tent, signs, etc.

  19. High Risk Populations • Never serve raw seed sprouts, raw or undercooked eggs, meat, or seafood. This includes items like: • Over-easy eggs • Raw oysters • Rare hamburgers • Use Pasteurized Eggs

  20. Cooling and Re-heating Food • Foods must pass through Temperature danger zone quickly. • Foods must be cooled from 135 degrees to 41 degrees or lower with in six hours • First stage: 135 to 70 degrees within 2 hours • Second stage: to 41 degrees or lower in the next four hours. • If it has not reached 70 degrees in 2 hours it must be thrown out • If you can reach 70 degrees in less than 2 hours the remaining time can be added to the fours hours needed to reach 41 degrees

  21. Methods for Cooling • Factors: • Thickness or Density of Food • The denser it is the longer it takes • Refried beans take longer than chicken broth • Storage container used • Stainless steel transfers better than plastic • Never place large quantities of hot food in a cooler to cool • Before cooling – reduce size if possible

  22. Ice Water Bath • Divide into smaller containers • Place in a clean prep sink or large pot filled with ice water • Stir food frequently to cool it faster and more evenly

  23. Ice Paddle • Different size paddles are available that can be filled with ice or water and than frozen. • Food cools even faster when using an ice bath and ice paddles

  24. Blast Chiller/Tumble Chiller • Blast cold air across food at high speeds to remove heat • Typically used to cool large amounts of food • Tumble chillers used for bags of hot food. • Can also use ice as an ingredient

  25. Re-Heating Food • For Holding: From start to finish must be heated to an internal temperature of 165 with in two hours, and must be at that temperature for at least 15 seconds • For immediate service: Can be reheated to any temperature if the food was cooked and cooled correctly. (Beef for sandwich)

  26. Chapter 8 The Flow of Food Service

  27. Guidelines for Holding Food • While being held for service food is at risk for time temperature abuse and cross contamination • Hold hot foods at 135 degrees or higher (prevents pathogens such as Bacillus Cereus) • Hold cold foods at 41 degrees or lower (prevents pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus) • Use thermometer to check internal temperature of food every 4 hours • Throw out food that is not below 41 or above 135 • two hours will leave time for a corrective action • Do not rely on temperature gauge of holding unit

  28. Guidelines, Cont. • Hot holding equipment • Never use it to reheat food, unless it is built to do so • Re-heat correctly and than move to holding equipment • Pass through temperature danger zone as quickly as possible • Create policies about how long to hold food • When to throw away held food • Food covers and sneeze guards must be used to protect food from contaminants

  29. Holding Without Temperature Control • When displaying for a short period of time • When electricity is not available • Cold Food: • Hold at 41 degrees for lower before removing it • Label the food with the time it was removed form refrigeration and time it must be thrown out, six Hours from the time it was removed from refrigeration • Food cannot exceed 70 degree, if it does throw it out • Sell, serve, or throw out the food within six hours

  30. Hot food • Can be held for up to four hours without temperature control • Hold at 135 or higher before removing it • Label the food with the time it must be thrown out. • Sell, serve, or throw out with in four hours

  31. Serving Food • Biggest Threat to food that is ready to serve is contamination • Train your staff in proper ways of service

  32. Bare-Hand Contact with Food • Ready to eat foods should be handled with tongs, deli sheets or gloves. • Some regulatory agencies allow bare-hand contact but you must have policies for: • Employee health • Employee training in hand washing and personal hygiene

  33. Utensils • Must be cleaned and sanitized • Use separate utensils for each food item • Must be cleaned and sanitized at least once every four hours • Store in food with handle extended above the rim of the container used to hold food, or on a clean and sanitized food contact surface • Spoons and scoops can be stored under running water that is at least 135 degrees

  34. Service Staff • Must not touch food contact areas of glasses, dishes, or utensils • Hold dished by bottom or edge • Hold glasses by middle or stem • Carry glasses in a rack, do not stack / Store upside down • Hold flatware by the handle • Store flatware so servers will grap handles • Minimize bare hand contact with ready to eat food • Use ice tongs or scoops, never use a glass

  35. Re-Serving Food • Menu items returned by one customers can not be served to another • Never re-serve uncovered condiments • Do not combine served condiments with fresh ones • Do not re-serve breads and rolls, change linens in bread baskets after each customer • Never re-use a plate garnish • Pre-packaged foods can only be re-served if they were unopened. (crackers, condiments, etc.)

  36. Self-Service Areas • Can become easily contaminated • Must use sneeze guards: Should be 14 inches above counter and extend 7 inches beyond the food • All Containers must be labeled – can be placed on utensils • Temperatures: cold food 41 or below, hot 135 or above • Raw meat, fish, and poultry kept separate from ready to eat foods • Do not let customers refill dirty plates, assign staff member to hand out clean plates • Ice used to keep food or beverages cold can never be used as an ingredient

  37. Off Site Service • Food Containers: Food should be packed in insulated food containers that can keep food above 135 or below 41 degrees. • Use only food grade containers • Transfer to proper holding equipment at service site • Delivery vehicle must be cleaned inside regularly • Check internal temperatures – if not holding temperatures re-evaluate routes or equipment • Label food with a use by date, time, and re-heating instructions

  38. Vending Machines • Check product shelf life daily • Throw our refrigerated food prepped on-site if not sold within seven days of preparation • Keep TCS food at the proper temperature • Dispense TCS food in its original container • Wash and wrap fresh fruit with edible peels before putting in machines

  39. Chapter 9 Food Safety Management systems

  40. Management Systems • Active Managerial Control • Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points • Systems are a group of procedures and practices intended to prevent foodborne illness. • Personal hygiene program • Supplier selection and specification program • Sanitation and pest control program • Facility design and maintenance program • Food Safety training program

  41. Active Managerial Control • Way to manage risks in your operation • Focuses on controlling five most common risk factors that cause foodborne illness • Purchase food from unsafe sources • Failing to cook food adequately • Holding food at incorrect temperatures • Using contaminated equipment • Practicing poor personal hygiene

  42. Controlling Risks • FDA Food Code identified 5 ways to control risks • Demonstrate knowledge: as manager you must be able to show that you know what to do to keep food safe • Staff Health controls: Policies and procedures that make sure your employees are practicing good personal hygiene • Controlling hands as a vehicle for contamination: Prevent cross-contamination from hands to food • Time temperatures parameters for controlling pathogens: Keeping food out of Temperature danger zone • Consumer advisory: Notice to customers about the risks of raw or undercooked foods

  43. HACCP • Based on identifying significant biological, chemical, or physical hazards at specific points through the flow of food. • Once identified they can be prevented, eliminated, or reduced to safe levels • Must be based on a written plan • Specific to each facility, menu, and processes

  44. Seven Principles to HACCP • Conduct a hazard analysis • Determine critical control points (CCP’s) • Establish Critical limits • Establish monitoring procedures • Identify corrective actions • Verify that the system is working • Establish procedures for record keeping and documentation

  45. Principle 1 • Identify and assess potential hazards • Prepping and cooking without serving • Prepping, cooking, holding, cooling, and reheating, and serving • Use menu to determine where food safety hazards are likely to occur for each TCS food

  46. Principle 2 • Determine Critical Control Points (CCPs) • Identify where the hazards can be prevented, eliminated, or reduced to safe levels. There may be more than one CCP.

  47. Principle 3 • Establish critical limits • Could be minimums or maximums • Chicken breast must be cooked to a minimum internal temperature of 165 degrees for 15 seconds

  48. Principle 4 • Establish monitoring procedures • Once a limits has been created, it has to be checked, who is going to check it , and how often • The grill cook must us a clean and sanitized thermometer to check the internal temperature at the thickest part of the chicken breast

  49. Principle 5 • Identify Corrective actions • Used when a critical limit is not met • Food being held on a buffet is checked for temperature after 2 hours and it is at 120 degrees – corrective action is to take food and reheat to proper temperatures and return to buffet.

  50. Principle 6 • Verify that the system works • Use your charts, records, logs etc to determine if you are reducing or eliminating identified hazards

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